Marazlievska Street appeared nearly 200 years ago. In 1828, on the outskirts of town there is a street, which was originally called – “Novaya”.
While unremarkable street alongside a quarantine, a cemetery, a powder magazine and a vast wasteland of the future park. House number 2 is at the beginning Marazlievskaya and number 1 – is at the end, because the left side of the street takes a park named T.G. Shevchenko (Alexander Park). Elitism street exclude brisk trade shops, business offices vanity (this noble tradition Marazlievskaya respects and present). It was quiet, calm and comfortable.
May 31 Odessa department of the Imperial Society of Horticulture conducted “Battle of Flowers”. To construct the platform, were appointed “trusted judges”, the band played, the crews were decorated with garlands of flowers, which are specially ordered from gardeners: “At the time appointed by the Bariatinskii lane on Marazlievskaya street started slow movement flowered column private carriages, open carriages, various carriages pulled by horses. Each of the vehicles was decorated with taste and imagination of the owner “. The first demonstration of “Cinématographe” was arranged in the middle of the 1890s.
On the part of Mihaylovskaya Square belonged “cyclodrome”, which in the 1880-90 biennium. Society of amateur cyclists to hold competitions. There were Utochkin, Bader, Morozov, Brodsky, Voronov.
When the Alexandrovsky park was now a park named T.G. Shevchenko Marazli mayor appealed to wealthy citizens of the city. He promised the ownership of land to those who are here to build a luxury home. Since the street is located near the park and not far from the sea, many entrepreneurs agreed. So the street, which was the port suburb will soon become one of the most beautiful in our city. Most of the sites on the street was purchased father G. Marazli.
From the outset, Street reached Novorybnoy, ie to Panteleimon. Within when there appeared Mishkova factory, the first portion has been cut off and there was a new street, and now it is called in honor of Chornovil. Marazlievskaya ends here.
Like many streets in Odessa Marazlievskaya also undergone a name change of leapfrog. The first name you already know. After 35 years after the creation of the street is renamed to Mihaylovskaya, from the name of the Monastery. And after 30 years, it is assigned a name Marazlievskaya. In the 20th year, after coming “bolshivikov” street called the name of Engels, in honor of the centenary of the birth of the revolutionary theorist. Later, the street was called Marazlievskaya during the occupation and since 1991.
Here apartment building number 7. It was designed by the architect Bernardazzi.
In 1900-ies. lived in this house masseuse SO Ostrovskaya, surgeon P.M. Gusev, artist S.N. Sultanov, merchant 2nd guild M.Sh. Granovsky.
Now on the first floor of the building is “The World Club of Odessa citizens” – a public organization designed to unite all those who feel from Odessa. This association is striking in its unusualness. Tell me, where are you ever heard of the World Club of Kiev, Muscovites, Lviv or St. Petersburg? And the inhabitants of Odessa – please. In this club may enter everyone who loves Odessa and lived in it. It was founded in 1990, and chairman of the club – Mikhail Zhvanetskiy. The slogan of the club: “Odessa citizens of all countries! Connecting. ” The club is designed to help Odessa in maintaining its cultural heritage. At the initiative of the club was a monument to Babel, published complete editions Yuri Alyosha, Vera Imber, Kataev and other famous Odessans who glorified our city.
House number 64 – a house, 2005 (. Built on the site houses Novikov, 1860 Architect – I.N. Kolovic, rebuilt for Kaufman in 1890, architect – S.A. Landesman).
In Odessa legend this place was an inn, where stop AS Pushkin in one of his visits.
It is known that Alexander Pushkin visited our city twice. In 1820 and in 1823. Last time he lived in Odessa 13 months. On the life of the great poet and his stay in Odessa you can hear by visiting our sightseeing tours and literary. So, according to legend, the poet came to Odessa and even in 1834, because he was tired of the climate of the middle band Russia and poetic soul was drawn to the sea. However, once again, the last visit of the poet – this is only speculation.
And now we will go to the house, in which one of Odessa poets lived, who described the worst years on Marazlievskaya street.
House number 5 of the original architecture of the emerging modernity. The impressive facade with bay windows, three courtyards. One of the best projects of architect DE Mazirova. Apartment house N. Belikovich, 1902 (monument architecture).
Odessa writer Raphael Grugman born on Marazlievskaya, 5 described the “fear of a man who lived on the street Marazlievskaya where … every night scurrying” black crows “and sometimes tightly closed tarpaulin wagons left on the pavement … bloody strips.” The writer himself was born October 16, 1948 in Odessa in the family of an employee of the plant “Kinap” Abram Borisovich Grugmana and a primary school teacher Eugenia Samoylovna Rivilis, graduate of 1937 the literary faculty of the Jewish sector of the Odessa Teachers’ Institute (release in 1937 was the last, almost the entire teaching staff was arrested). In 1993-94 he was the editor of the “Ha Melitz,” the first Jewish newspaper published in Odessa in the post-Soviet period, at the same time actively cooperated with the Israel Foundation for Culture and Education in the Diaspora and the Odessa Society of Jewish Culture. the first art book “Sea Bride” was published in 1994, the second in the following year – “Boris, come from the sea.” In 1996 he emigrated to the United States. In New York, he worked in the Internet company, a team leader at IBM, in 1997 – a teacher of the New York College. Now alive and well. That’s how you can combine the talent of a writer and a technical mindset.
Nothing can remind that the house number 5 lived educator Berta Serebryanaya, daughter Chaim Wolf – protagonist K.G. Paustovsky who hid here revolutionary.
And now, the time has come to find out who is the real prototype of Babel Liubka-Cossack, what kind of house it is often visited and why.
We are located in front of house number 62. In his yard there is a wooden gallery. This house Sherman. The building was built in 1880, architect – A.K. Veytko.
In this house, often staying “Lieb Zilberman, aka Sherman, aka Madame Lyubka” – a prototype of the heroine of “Odessa Stories” Isaac Babel. There was a family of her youngest daughter Gitl at Reingbald husband.
Unlike his literary sisters Leyba Ziberman was married. Her husband was Leib Ziberman. He kept a tavern in the house Kartsova. Her husband belonged to a family of immigrants from this city, along with the entire Kingdom of Poland became part of the Russian Empire. And his wife was Silbermann Lieb Abramovna that everyone called Lyuba, Lyuba and Madame Luba – neighbors, friends, friend from all over the Moldavian, traders familiar with the market and visitors Alekseevskogo inn where she was busy on the common parts. In its core business by Love nee Sherman, he was involved in the creation of a network of catacombs under Odessa. She held the quarry, which was mined coquina and to build houses. In those years, many owners are permanently or temporarily unoccupied land – doctors, engineers, high officials, who did not have the time or interest himself venturing quarrying, preferred to lease them. It brings a certain, often an additional income without any hitting a finger, and all the trouble fully passed on to entrepreneurs like Liubka. First and foremost, it is through knowledgeable people look for a suitable piece of land, and by means of a notary concluded, as it was then called, a rental condition to its owner. Zaim such rank site Lyubka ordered Yu.Planovskomu who was a technician to oversee the quarry, the quarry plan calls for the device. Worries and scribbling enough. However, the issue is people adept in clerical matters intricacies and speed, and Lyuba, not very well-versed “near the Russian letters,” only exasperated by them are not accustomed to the pen by hand: “Palan received Lieb Sherman” or simply “Bobruisk Philistine Lieb Sherman”.
Lyuba is not the last role in her husband’s tavern. Fussed also had a single day, because the pub was closed only in the evening when, as “falling into the sea after sunset sprinkling shining eyes” Babel wrote. Keep inn was a serious matter, and engaged them decent people of the old Odessa families, if not dynasties, such as Bender, Berlaga, Galyuzman, Zambrini, Pasternak, Rublev, Sicard and others. Throughout Moldovanke there were one and a half thousand. Tavern restaurants were considered of lower rank, but did not go to any comparison with public-oriented lumpenized “Obzhorka” that huddled on Lanzheronovskaya descent, the Tamozhenaya square, the Primorskaya Street. If “Obzhorka” starved visitors fed boiled tripe and intestine stuffed with porridge roasted, covered with red pepper and liberally seasoned with mustard, so impossible to recapture the smell, the inns and nothing did not exist. You could eat crumbly boiled potatoes with fatty herring, fried on vegetable gobies oil duhovituyu hominy dry Moldovan cheese, dried vobla color of dark gold, smoked mackerel, is now turning a legend, nourishing meat soup, sweet steppe tomatoes and vigorous sauerkraut in gracious brine … It was a simple but nourishing food for those who like the poet wrote Bagritsky, “abide precious Wheat bread and oily soup.”
Zibelman and even kept his alcohol plant. He was still a competitor Novitsky. This is how a Jewish family with Moldavian is related to one of the most beautiful streets of our city.
House number 1 House Nikiforov, built in 1875, designed and built by the famous LL Vlodek. Its first owner was a State Councilor Nikiforov.
Anton Nikiforov – one of the prominent and distinguished lawyers in Odessa the third quarter of the XIX century. After receiving a university education, he served as the district magistrate for many years, which required a huge commitment, it has been associated with severe mental suffering. He started by the Secretary of the Odessa District Court with the rank of provincial secretary. At the end of 1870 has already been a magistrate in the 15th section of Tiraspol on the street, where his clients often become “lost, but cute creatures”, soderzhatelnitsy nearby brothels, all sorts of “petty thieves” and “McLuckie.” At the end of 1870 – the first half of 1880 had a modest Nikiforov (Pushkin!) The rank of a collegiate secretary, in 1883 led the 12th World section, “camera” and is placed in his own house, at that time bore the №17. There he lived there took “clients”.
Two-storey house number 3 – apartment building A. Brodsky, in 1887, architect – A. Bernardazzi.
Brodsky, Abram Markovich (1816-1884) – the first guild merchant, a banker. In 1858 he moved from St. Petersburg to Odessa, there was a vowel City Council, a member of the city council. Philanthropist, funded the creation of two Jewish-agricultural settlements, hereditary honorary citizen of Odessa. Outstanding Odessa, one of the most active representatives of the municipality! In 1861 he had a 20 thousand rubles bought a house on Alexander Avenue, which founded a shelter for the poor. Eleven years later, the shelter was called Talmud Torah and was significantly expanded. In 1879 th Brodsky 72 thousand built a huge building for the Jewish orphanage, which occupied an entire city block on Market Street. In 1891 he acquired a vast plot of land in the suburbs, where he opened another orphanage – so that students can engage in agriculture and trade.
Brodsky – a Russian dynasty Sugar, industrialists and public figures of Jewish origin, founded at the beginning of the XIX century. The first sugar mills Brodskys built or taken for rent in the province of Kiev in 1840. In 1880-ies. Brodsky dynasty owned 9 factories, in 1912 – 17 plants. Brodsky were among the most active organizers of the first syndicate of sugar (1887) and a syndicate of refiners (1903). Dynasty officials also owned and operated enterprises of flour-milling, brewing, distilling and wood and paper industry.
In 1912, the house was located Romanovskoe custody. In this house lived a noble Olga Abramovich. In 1913 the yard wing was built here.
Impressive corner house number 60 – apartment house Anatra, 1850, architect – FO Morandi. It was originally a single-storey, second floor completed in our time.
Rhode Anatra comes from Italy: they were born in Sicily (now living there and their descendants, and even – in Argentina). The social significance of Odessa is not immediately found. The family took up the export of agricultural products rather late, and before its members were primarily stockbrokers. Trading house “Bratya Anatra” has officially existed since 1876 and exported abroad, tens of thousands of quarters “sandomriki”, “Gierke” and other varieties of wheat, rye, and others. His business partners were such giants as, say, Dreyfus. In 1870-1880-s large Anatra owned housing in the heart of the city. At the turn of 1900-1910-ies Anatra family acquired a caught in a difficult situation after the Russian-Japanese War, the tea merchant Dementieva house on Deribasovskaya Street, number 29, – construction of a hotel “Bolshaya Moskovskaya”. After the death of company founder Angelo Anatra, his sons had inherited confirm a high social position, give the appropriate privileges. Anatra firms Bakery case typed quite original: “Commissioners, speculators and exporters.” Mill Anatra brothers flour exported to Turkey, Greece, Egypt. Its quality products awarded with the highest distinctions in the exhibitions:. Barcelona 1888, Paris 1900, Athens 1903, etc. In 1910 the mill employed 37 people. The annual production amounted to 1,500,000 pounds of flour, and the annual turnover – 2,300,000 rubles. The plant was equipped with a modern steam engines, and the workers are insured without exception – an indicator of civilization enterprises. On Art and Industrial Exhibition 1910-1911 years in Odessa at the Anatra had its own pavilion, where, in particular, exhibited works of two systems of the airplane “Blériot the XI” and “Bleriot the XII”, parts for airplanes. The bottom line is that Arthur Antonovich Anatra was president of the famous Odessa flying club (KLA), the actual founder of aviation production in Odessa. Testers Anatra aircraft were SI Utochkin (which, incidentally, is one of the Anatra, they say, led his wife, and the story later was very sad for Sergei Iosifovich consequences) and M.N. Efimov.
In the early XX century mansion bought Nicholas Schoenfeld. The owner of the house in 1912 was Ms. Sarah Gauzner Frima Kelm. In 1901 it housed a clinic of Dr. AB Vollernera. After the hospital, for nearly 60 years, housed various schools, the first of which was a private gymnasium VN Maslova MN Gradskaya. The school was one of the cultural centers of the city, where literary evenings were writers. In 1918, with the reading of his stories are made Tolstoy (apparently at the request of his landlady MF Walzer that taught in high school French and was godmother Anna Akhmatova). During the Soviet era – the school number 83 (up to 1975), then a kindergarten, since 1996 – the urban Jewish school number 94.
January 25, 1995 in Odessa has opened a state secondary Jewish school, over the next few years it has been restructured and is now a specialized secondary school level I-III “ORT» № 94 with in-depth study of Hebrew and Informatics. The school is state and executes a training program for education of Ukraine. After school, its graduates receive a certificate of secondary education. In school, we study the cycle of Jewish subjects in Hebrew, the culture, the traditions, the history of the Jewish people, the geography of Israel, the course “Holocaust.” This cycle is taught on the basis of Israel’s and the author’s programs, is controlled not only by the Ministry of Education of Ukraine, and the Israeli Ministry of Education. In the 2015-16 academic year, 20 high school enrolled 405 students. The school works 5 days a week of training in one shift (from 8.30 to 16.00).
But in this unremarkable house number 58, located bomboubezhesche. Beside him, the same is not remarkable house number 56. Now it has apartments and a few businesses.
Next to the Soviet period, a complex of buildings (house number 1a) located Marazli Monument, which was established in 2008.
Previously, there was a monument to the Greek area. Only a few years later we decided to establish a monument to the founder of the street it is on it.
He died in 1907 in Odessa.
His father, Grigory Marazli, Greek, native of Philippopolis in the Ottoman Empire (now – the Bulgarian city of Plovdiv), lived in Odessa in 1803. Occupation grain export allowed him to amass a large fortune. Being multiplied form of his son, it was the material basis of numerous donations to Odessa. GI Marazli was an honorary citizen of Odessa, was engaged in social activities, was instrumental in founding the national-patriotic Greek society “Filiki Eteria”. It fought for Greek independence from the Ottoman Empire. It was headed by Nicholas Skufas Immanuel and Xanthos.
Initial education Grigory Marazli received in private guesthouse Odessa, then – in the famous all over the country Richelieu Lyceum (in the legal department). After graduating from school I went to the service with Vorontsov to the Caucasus. After serving in the office of governor of the Caucasus for some time he lived in Paris. Then GG Marazli returned to Odessa and successfully engaged in business, becoming one of the first in Odessa Merchant.
since 1873 – member of the town council. In the absence of the mayor in 1871 – 1872, 1873 and 1875 corrected its position. In 1878 he was elected mayor and served in that post until 1895.
List of glorious deeds for the benefit of Odessa GG Marazli truly impressive.
He began to enter the city electric lighting: in 1880 the first “lamp Yablochkov” lit up on the Promenade. That same year, the Belgian joint stock company built the first tram line of horse-drawn ( “competi”) from Richelieu and Postal (Zhukovsky) street to the beach “Langeron”. Gradually expanding tram network, the same Belgian company offered the city electric trams.
In 1882, the telephone station serving the first of 18 clients for an expensive subscription fees was opened in Odessa.
In 1884, finally, built Odessa railway station – according to the testimony of the French consul, “one of the most beautiful in the world.” Big building of the railway station was designed by the architects Bernardazzi and Schroter. New The station building is largely preserved former appearance.
in Odessa and its suburbs – in the Kuyal’nitskogo Khadzhibey and estuaries – the construction of new hospitals, sanatoriums, baths. All these institutions, large and small, together created a rapidly growing industry, to attract customers not only from Odessa. At the initiative of GG Marazli, in the area of the former summer residence of Langeron, the main city park was laid.
He gave the city a grand palace built in 1828 by Count Naryshkin. Gifts intended for the opening of the museum, which exists to this day – is Odessa Art Museum on Sophia Street. Another mansion built on the street Pushkinskaya architect Otto, also presented their city for the device showrooms. He built building public reading room with two public schools with her project Dimitrenko and also gave the city. He paid out of his own funds to build an extension to the House of Charity.
He handed the Odessa branch of the Imperial Horticultural Society, founded in 1884, one of his villas (now resort to them. Chkalov) and ordered the architects Klein and restructuring Tolvinskim this house, in order to organize a school for the study of botany, horticulture, agriculture economy and so on. d.
He has equipped at his own expense the city bacteriological station, which was the first in the Russian Empire, the laboratory of this kind. It carried out his experiments famous scientist I. Mechnikov. He subsidized the publication of books on the history of Odessa, he began publishing Novorossiysk calendar in 1891. His donations Public Library structure stacks 80 thousand volumes was extended, and he supplemented his extensive collection of books.
Known to his numerous contributions to the City Theatre and other cultural institutions. In Dyukovsky garden he arranged the amusement camp for children from poor families Moldavanka and Slobodka-Romanovka.
He financed the construction of a large doss-house for the homeless and a new wing to the poorhouse Sturdzovskoy content Home for retired military veterans, financially supported orphans.
When it set up shelters for foundlings, it was open psychiatric hospital, along with luxurious buildings decorate the city center were built at home with inexpensive apartments, available for low-income residents.
In 1895, GG Marazli resigned for health reasons, but before his death, in 1907, he continued to engage in charity.
In 1903, in Odessa GG Marazli he married Mary Ferdinandovna Keach, nee Narkevitch. From the marriage with Grigory MF Keech left offspring, and with his death stopped the race Marazli through the male line.
At the initiative of the Greek colony of Odessa GG Marazli he was buried in a separate chapel Greek St. Trinity Church in Odessa. According to local historians of Odessa, in the 30s of last century, he was reburied at Odessa Sloboda cemetery (grave to this day has not been preserved). In this temple is still in 1875, Gregory Marazli was built chapel in the name of the Holy Great Martyr Demetrius of Thessalonica in honor of Demetrius Feodoridi (GG uncle Marazli). After the death of Marazli, to perpetuate the memory of the deceased, his nephew – A. Safonov, it was donated to the temple of 17 thousand rubles.
Wishing to perpetuate the achievements GG Marazli to Odessa, after his death in 1907, he intended to erect a monument. It was only after almost 100 years after his death, 2 September 2004 (the day of foundation of the city) Monument GG Marazli was opened in the heart of Odessa, on the Greek area, next to the street Deribasovskaya.
In 2008, the monument moved to the street Marazlievskuyu, his name was given this street the grateful Odessans shortly after the death of this remarkable man who has done so much for Odessa and still is the consummate example for all future municipal authorities.
Here is the house number 54, apartment house Kryzhanovsky – Auderskogo, 1900, architect LL Vlodek (architectural monument).
In 1900-ies. Kataev family lived for some time. On such a famous family and their representatives will be discussed in another place and under the literary tour of Odessa.
During these years, it housed the Belgian charity. It was the first tram route in Odessa was organized with the participation of society. The annual fee was 5 rubles. From 1911, the report .: “welfare society issued and travel home 246 rubles 50 kopecks .; the whole parish for the same year was in 1382 the amount of rubles. “.
The original house Auderskomu Polish landowner. his heir – Galina Auderskaya became famous Polish writer.
Galina Auderskaya was born in Odessa in 1904. After the collapse of the Russian Empire in 1920, she moved to Poland. She graduated from Warsaw University. In 1929-1939 she worked as a teacher in high school. During the war, the writer participated in the underground patriotic organizations, has experienced the tragic days of the Warsaw Uprising of 1944. The events of those years reflected in the novel “Warsaw Siren” (in the “Sword of the sirens’ original). After the war Auderskaya continues. She was chairman of the Union of Polish Writers. Famous writer lived until 2000.
After Auderskih house craftsmen moved to NN Krizhanovsky, as evidenced by the brass plate at the gate. It belonged to the estate Krizhanovsky Kryzhanovka – now a suburban village. During one of Kryzhanovskaya was married to the sister of Kolchak – Catherine.
Here, as in the homes of 2 and 5, there is a bas-relief of female faces with noose around his neck. With them is connected with several legends.
The first legend tells the story of his daughter, who hung herself in the house. The second states that the earlier it is in these houses zamanimavali beautiful girls, and later sold, were transported to distant Istanbul in Turkish harems.
Next house number 52, draws its architectural design – a sort of “English castle” in miniature. Built in 1847 by architect FO Morandi for Gudkov. It is angular and sometimes in directories give his address as Troitskaya, 1.
At the end of the XIX century. its owner was the merchant Kryzhanovsky, and at the beginning of the XX century. – “Merchant 1st guild, vowel City Council; elected merchant class; headman Alexander Church at the Institute. Nicholas I … Emperor “Mikhail Blizhensky, “cloth merchant products”.
Kataev mentions this house in the story “The Winter Wind”.
In 1910-ies. there lived a famous artist Tit Yakovlevich Dvornikov.
Landscape painter Dvornikov was born in Kursk province in a peasant family. Then the family moved to Kharkov, where his father took up baking bread. Dvornikov studied in the local drawing school, and then fate brought him to Odessa, which he has not left. There he taught in the public schools and the local art school. The painter often depicted the port of Odessa in different seasons and different times of day, the types of South Palmyra and the surrounding area, a variety of landscape motifs. In 1893 Dvornikov became a member of the Association of South Russian artists, he was one of the founders of the company name Chiriac Kostandi. He died in 1922 in Odessa.
House number 50 – House SS Mangubi.
Before the revolution, he lived and worked as a doctor GZ North: “The clinic for surgical patients Dr. GZ Seva. Opened clinic from 1 September 1902 is designed for 10-15 beds.”
author of the books: “Tomorrow – the ocean”, “Our friend Jose”, “Eagle and Giovanni”, “Silver Olive”, “Boy and a seagull”, “Sailor’s Queen”, and others. “Childhood of the future writer was held in Odessa. Here he, like many of his peers, affinity with the sea. A. Batra experienced a lot in his lifetime. He was a sailor, journalist, soldier. Crossed much latitude from the Arctic to the equator. He is the author of many books. All his works – about Odessa, people, lovers of the sun and the sea, the sky and steppe for those who know their purpose, who can fight and win. ” As the writer says of himself: “… I have been on all the seas and oceans, has worked in the north and the south, but the harsh salt boyish years still remembered me”.
House number 48 – apartment house Polovinskoy, I half of XIX century. (architectural monument). Later, the house owned by AL Borzenko.
In 1920-1949 gg. Ukrainian writer lived and worked NI Matyas, author of novels, including “Korov’yachі dnі” (1925). As he filmed scenarios at the Odessa film studio – “Cafe Fanconi”(1929) and “Mirabeau” (1930).
Here is the house number 46, which was built at the beginning of century XX, House NN Kryzhanovsky (architectural monument).
In 1947, the Ministry of Interior was “Spetstorg”. “Spetstorg” held wholesale and retail trade of food and manufactured goods, organized the catering, spent decentralized workpiece, ie, I stock the products and different materials without the guardianship of the state.
The openwork ligature gate survived the initials of the owner of the house number 44 – apartment house DG Kefala, 1899. (architectural monument).
In the early 1900s, the surgeon IF lived here Sabaneev. And in 1903-1905. Here he lived and worked outstanding ophthalmologist, founder of the first in Odessa clinic of Ophthalmology Department of Ophthalmology and the University of Novorossiysk, Professor SS Golovin.
Sergey Golovin Selivanovich (1866-1931)
Professor, Honored Worker of Science of the USSR
SS Golovin was born in Bolkhov Orlovskaya province, in the family servant. In 1884 he graduated from the Orlov gymnasium and entered the medical faculty of Moscow University. In 1889, SS Golovin, graduated from the course at Moscow University and earned a spot assistant country doctor in the Serpukhov district, Moscow province. There he found a large common eye disease, but doctors who know how to treat these diseases, was not at that time. In 1895 SS Golovin defended his thesis on “ophthalmia-tonometric research.” From 1895 to 1903. successfully developed its research activities, SS Golovin several trips abroad and visited many famous aftolmologov that time. March 27, 1903, SS Golovin was elected to the post of professor at the Department of Ophthalmology of the Novorossiysk University (Odessa). On arrival in Odessa SS Golovin took an active part in the establishment of eye clinics. Opening of the Department of Ophthalmology held on September 25, 1903 inaugural lecture SS Golovin “On blindness in Russia.” Author emphasized that 300 thousand of the blind in Russia no less than 180 thousand blind due to lack of medical care as a result of heavy social conditions and incredible cultural backwardness of tsarist Russia, where 120 million people were only 209 qualified opticians. SS Golovin taught to examine patients carefully, paying attention to the etiology of the disease and to communicate with the whole organism. In an operating not only complicated eye surgeries, but also operated on the frontal sinus and latticed labyrinth, made all kinds of plastic surgery. Working in the new clinic, SS Golovin wrote a monograph “On blindness in Russia” (1910), and the staff of the clinic 4 doctoral theses, including prepared dissertation VP Filatov (1908) and KA Yudin (1910), in Golovin Odessa Odessa was established ophthalmological society. August 9, 1911, SS Golovin was transferred to Moscow full professor at Moscow University in the department of ophthalmology. In the late 20-ies Sergey Selivanovich health gradually deteriorated on April 11, 1931, he felt something bad, heart activity continued to deteriorate, and 28 April 1931, he died of a severe heart attack. As a scientist, SS Golovin has left a rich legacy that includes 105 scientific papers. Among them a special place is occupied by works devoted to ophthalmic surgery.
House number 40-42, Nautical School of Technical Fleet, in 1957, architect – LM Narkevitch (architectural monument).
Worth in place at home GG Hoyningen-Güney, which was built in 1909, “with all the latest technical improvements” (number 40a), RG houses Vassals (number 40b) and EI Sleshinsky (number 42).
Houses form a square adjacent to the Cable Street. and they were connected by internal passages and courtyards. Later in this large apartment house at number 40, located in 1920 Odessa provincial public policy management unit (GPU). October 22, 1941 the building was mined and blown up by a radio signal as a time when there had gathered tabletop meeting. “On Marazlievskaya there was an explosion of such tremendous force that the earth moved under my feet … iron, rumbling echo broad peals went for a walk over the city, and several air waves, one after another pressed the eardrum …… above the place where stood a huge NKVD house it stood, or in an empty sky. rather, heavy and stifling hung white and pink cloud of broken bricks and plaster, through which could be seen the ruins of the ugly blow up the building” – V. Kataev, “Catacombs”. They were followed by raids and reprisals ambulance, killing thousands of residents of Odessa.
In 1957 on the site of the building number 40-42 nautical school was built. Nautical College was founded in 1944 under the name “Odessa Marine Civil Engineering”.
We are located in front of apartment house vassals, house number 38. He, like many of the houses on this street, designed by the architect familiar Vlodek in the early 20th century.
In 1803, Emperor Alexander I issued a lease with the subsequent purchase of junk sandy steppe on the outskirts of the southern lands of the French political refugees who fled from the bloody revolutionary guillotine. Wilhelm Rouvier, was the name of a brave settler, and his wife Clara, née Odinet, three daughters: Sophia, Zoe, Clara, and a distant relative, a nobleman Rene vassals, not afraid of difficulties, but the main thing – to believe in the success, from 1803 to 1805 years, from Spain courts brought merino sheep. Tycoons sheep Rouvier and Vassal stood at the birth and development of capitalism in the south, founded the first sheepfold plants where hired labor was used. ” Sheepfold first factory was founded in 1803 to save Sofiyivka (current Lazurnoye). The notes of a personal physician, Count Vorontsov mentions that ownership Rouvier and vassals are comparable in size to the island of Madagascar. In Crimea, the French founded the first charity school for boys learning viticulture established export Crimean liquor in France. Excellent results have contributed to the export of sheep wool in Europe, and for the UK fleet supplied fat and a dried mutton. Since 1847 oyster, mussel and fish factory built on Tendra spit. Close-export enables vassals buy four steamer. The owner of the island Dzharylgach vassals of Sofia, the youngest daughter of Rene vassals, gave the island to the state for the construction of the lighthouse. At the beginning of the XX century the richest families of the south – vassal, Skadovsk, Faltz-Fein made a joint decision: for the infrastructure development of the region need railroad. Vassal Crimean estate sold “Balaclava” for 800 thousand rubles in silver, and in 1914 and 1915 established the three settlements. At the time of the revolution vassals family owned 14 houses in Odessa (the most famous at the Promenade number 4, near the monument to Duke de Rishelє), three in Kherson, Skadovsk, Paris and Trieste, Italy. Family vassals for centuries, living on the now native land, is actively involved in charity work. For Odessa built a Catholic Cathedral of St. Peter and Paul in Gavanniy descent, there is – a two-storey house for living of the poor Catholics, they also founded a charity for seafarers and shipowners, shipwrecked, poor pregnant women languishing in prisons, etc., can be a very long list of charitable work being done by this family.
Here is the house number 36, the house of Peter, in 1901, architect – VM Kabiolsky, fence – 1896 (architectural monument).
In 1900-ies. He became the owner of the house II Gene.
Gene (Hohn) Ivan (Johann)
[25 (according to other sources – 29) in May 1854, a colony of Neuburg, near Odessa (according to other sources – a colony Goffnungstal, Kherson Province.) – September 11, 1938, Chisinau]. Entrepreneur, owner of the factory of agricultural machines, hereditary honorary citizen of Odessa (1904). From a family of colonists craftsmen. Evangelical-Lutheran religion. The mother of the future large-scale breeder’s maiden name was Hammer.
The gene was educated at the Odessa real school St. Paul. In 1879 (or 1880) he led a workshop in Odessa, on this basis, creating the largest plant for the production of agricultural equipment in Russia. In 1881 he developed “Novorossiysk plow” – a progressive technical device (for its time), for which in 1884 received the first prize at the Odessa exhibition. Ploughs Gene were in great demand. In 1889 it was produced 4120 plows (awarded 2 gold medals at exhibitions in Tbilisi and Chisinau). In 1892 the production volume has doubled in comparison with 1891 the beginning of the 1900s. by Gene has sold 100 thousand. plows. Annual production of plows and other implements was 23 thousand. The gene was successfully compete with both local and from the British, American and German manufacturers, trading in Odessa, through their representatives. In 1898-1902 the annual output of the two plants amounted to 36 thousand. Plows, 2.5-3 thousand. Other machines. Since 1898 all products are supplied with the brand name approved by the government. The gene promoted the introduction of agricultural machinery not only in the south but also in the south-western regions, the Crimea, the Caucasus, some of the northern provinces of Russia. Products factory has received many awards and honorary degrees in various agricultural shows. High quality provides both advanced equipment and strict discipline (workers were fined for it is malfunctioning, absenteeism, tardiness, absenteeism, drunkenness, failure to comply with cleanliness, fighting, swearing, disobedience, etc.). In 1907, the company Gene was transformed into a joint stock company “I. I. Gene “with capital of 3 million. Rub., And the Ivan became his manager. In 1909 he bought an estate near Odessa, on the fields are being tested new machines, such as plows mnogolemeshnye, especially enjoyed great success. In 1911-12 the company’s turnover amounted to 2 mln. Rub. Ploughs Gene kept compete even with the mechanisms Eberhard and Zack, imported from Germany, because they were more adapted to Russian conditions. In 1913, Gene, together with R. and T. Elsuorsi (Elizavetgrad) and A. Koop (Shenvize), founded the trade company “Harvest” (Moscow, branches in Kharkov, Odessa and Rostov), which was to create a marketing network products for 3 -x enterprises. Before the joint-stock company “I. I. Gene ‘task was to achieve annual output of 200 thousand. Plows and 150 thousand. Harrows.However, the First World War broke business plans. The gene transferred to military production – demining equipment and artillery shells, as well as hospital beds. After the February Revolution of 1917, factories have become unprofitable, not only due to the increase in raw material, fuel prices, transportation, and so on. D., But also because of the constant mass demonstrations of workers who fought against the decline of prices and job cuts. In August 1917 Gene was forced to dismiss all workers and employees due to lack of funds. In February 1918, the plant reopened, and in April, Ivan again took possession of them. In August 1918 he sold the plants to the Central Committee of the agricultural cooperative. During the Civil War, half of the buildings, including the power plant, destroyed by arson. In 1920, production amounted to only 4.6% compared to 1913. After the nationalization of the factories taken over by the Odessa Provincial Economic Council (OGSNH), they became known as the 1st and 2nd state factories, and then by the October Revolution. For many decades, the factory remained the largest company in Ukraine agricultural engineering. Before the Second World voynі used pre-revolutionary equipment and old housing. The gene itself after 1918 went to Germany, but soon moved to Kishinev, where he attempted to establish a new plant. The German agricultural enterprises “Colonist” of the former province of Bessarabia, he sent a written plan for the organization of manufacture of such mechanisms. His proposals have caused concern and in September 1938 were to be held negotiations with the genome, but he did not have time to implement their ideas. Buried in Chisinau at the Lutheran cemetery. He was married first marriage to Louise, nee Shemp, from Odessa, by whom he had three sons and two daughters, and a second marriage – Matilda Kwast from Bessarabia.
In the yard of the house remained a pillar with the inscription: “SPB. Engineer Ieytsh (spruce) “According to legend, this post – the flagpole, the flag raised on that day itself the owner of the mansion.
In 1910-ies. resident physician IS Sushnov, engaged in “internal and childhood diseases.”
A solid building of the Peasant Land Bank at number 34a resembles an ancient Russian tower, 1914 arhitektorі – YM Dimitrenko, FA Troupyansky (a monument of architecture and history)
With the 1920s. Club was the MGB, NKVD, KGB. Here in June 1921, he worked FE Dzerzhinsky.
Dzerzhinsky August M30 [11 September] 1877, the family estate Dzerzhinovo, Ašmiany county, Vilna province, Russian Empire (now the Stolbtsy district, Minsk region, Belarus) – July 20, 1926, Moscow, USSR)
A professional revolutionary, a Soviet politician, the head of a number of commissariats, founder and head of the Cheka. nickname: Iron Felix, PD, Red Executioner
The son of a Polish nobleman, landed gentry, the owner of the farm Dzerzhinovo. Felix Dzerzhinsky was born prematurely and received in baptism two names – Felix Schensny (Felix Szczęsny), Latin and Polish, both mean – “happy” (in honor of the successful birth – his mother before birth fell into an open cellar, but she was lucky not to crash and to give birth (even before the deadline) healthy child). The family had nine children, when in 1882 his father died of tuberculosis, Felix was five years old. Felix wanted to become ksёndz.
From 1887 to 1895 he studied at the school, there is the autumn of 1895 joined the Lithuanian Social-Democratic organization (underground name Astronomer). Records show that he has twice served in the first class, and eighth is not finished, get your hands on a certificate of studies. And by the way, Russian and Greek had been unsatisfactory. After high school Dzerzhinsky conducted propaganda in the circles of craft and factory apprentices. In July 1897 he was arrested after being denounced and imprisoned in the Kovno prison, where he stayed for almost a year. In 1898, he sent to 3 years under police surveillance in the Vyatka province (Nolinsk city). There he enrolled in the calico-printer mahorochnuyu factory and began to conduct propaganda among the workers. For this he was exiled to 500 versts to the north of the village Nolinsk Kai, where he in August 1899 escaped by boat and made his way to Vilna, and then – in Warsaw. There Dzerzhinsky became a professional revolutionary. He was a supporter of joining the Lithuanian Social Democratic Party in the Russian Social Democratic Labour Party and follower of Rosa Luxemburg on the national question. In 1900 he participated in the First Congress of the Kingdom of Poland and Lithuania Social Democracy (SDKPiL). In the early 20th century, he was repeatedly arrested, fled. emigrated; SDKPiL at a conference in Berlin, was elected secretary of the foreign committee of the party. He has also worked in Switzerland. Organized edition of party newspapers. In 1909 he was sentenced to deprivation of all property rights and lifelong exile in Siberia. In March 1910, the secretary and treasurer of the main board of the party, acted in Krakow, where he married SS Mushkat. Actively opposed to give the activities of the party “for the possibility of legal and social revolution by peaceful and less painful nature of the opportunity.” Then he sat in Butyrskaya prison in Moscow, where he was released on March 1, 1917 after the February Revolution. Together with his party became a member of the RSDLP (b) elected as a member of the Moscow Committee of the RSDLP. He was against the right of nations to self-determination. During the revolution of October 25 carried out the seizure of the Main Post Office and Telegraph. He was the People’s Commissar of Defence from 17 June to 31 August
6 (19), 1917, the CPC, discussing the question, “On the possibility of a strike of employees in government offices country-wide scale,” instructed Dzerzhinsky “create a special commission to determine the possibilities for combating such strike by the most energetic revolutionary measures”, and the next day meeting of the CPC, he made a report “on the organization and composition of the Commission against sabotage” – with the approval of People’s Commissars was established All-Russian extraordinary Commission for combating counter-Revolution and sabotage, Dzerzhinsky was appointed its chairman and remained so until its conversion to the GPU in February 1922 (with a break in 1918). As chief of the Cheka carried out a brutal policy of repression against “class enemies”, the persecution went down in history as the “Red Terror.” Dzerzhinsky defined the “Red Terror”, as “intimidation, arrests and destruction of the enemies of the revolution on the basis of their class or their role in the last pre-revolutionary period.” The main function of the Cheka considered the struggle against counter-revolution by means of the terror itself. Objected to limiting the powers of the Cheka, and the criticism of abuses of the Cheka said that “wherever the proletariat has applied mass terror, where we do not meet the betrayal,” and that “the right of execution for the Cheka is extremely important”, even if “the sword of her at the same time falls by chance on heads of the innocent. “
In 1922-1923 years – the chairman of the GPU (GPU). As head of the communist economy, at the same time was the chairman of the commission to improve the lives of children (ie to combat child homelessness). This was done to improve the image of the revolutionary government. Communes were created, and in which there were children. These communes subsequently turned into a real prototype of the republic SHKID.
Iron Feleks died in June ’26, after his angry TATUS report on the economy. That’s what has been one of the employees of this building.
In 1960 the Odessa Regional Committee of the Communist Party handed the building under the Palace of students. While in Odessa thundered student theater miniatures “Parnas-2.” – Michael Zhvaneiky Viktor Ilchenko, Roman Kartcev etc. They staged plays, played in the Odessa Institute of Marine Engineers and the Palace of students.
Guests in the Odessa journalist “Evening Moscow” Oleg Ibragimov presented the photo investigator Cheka Mark Shtarkman. As set Lushchyk C., it was he interrogated the arrested … Kataev. How to establish a well-known local historian M.Binov lived in the house №1 Countess Elizabeth Kapnist, the heroine of his essay.
house number 34b
And we go round the old city park, the Park Taras Grigorievich Shevchenko.
Officially it was founded in 1875 and was called Aleksnadrovskim. The park has preserved oak that Sadilov the Emperor Alexander II. However, the development of the territory, as the park began long before this important event.
This area is partially formed part of the Turkish Hadjibeyan. After taking Hadjibeyan here pojavljatsja Hadzibeevsky earthen fortress, but was destroyed by the Turkish. Fortress appeared before the city’s founding. Strengthening it was ground and was located just on the territory of the park Shevchenko. The same mound on which the Alexander Column, and was one of the bastions of the fortress of Odessa. After the abolition of the Odessa fortress piece of its territory actually I went to the quarantine and became his “part of the passenger.” They say that the park is the city wall, but it is not. The park is located quarantine wall and fortress itself was ground.
It is known that in 1824 here in some occasion strayed AS Pushkin. And I found myself just in the location of the artillery battery. First, the poet was almost arrested as an enemy spy, but quickly understood, they came to the indescribable delight and made a friendly party. Moreover, shots of champagne bottle was not enough, and on the orders of the officer on duty, Ensign PA Grigorov, salute was fired in honor of Pushkin combat guns. During that 20-year-old varmint officer he received as a guardhouse days, and at the same time pass on immortality.
Here, according to R. Shuvalov extracted from archive files, secret burial were made of separate state criminals who were executed in the Odessa prison castle and race field, in particular – the People.
Even before the foundation of the park here beyla cottage Langeron. She arranged festivals, where you could buy a lot of stuff all delicious. During festivals stand out, so to speak, “ethnic societies”, that is, in one booth going to the German workmen, singing their songs to the harp, drinking beer; in the other – the Italian sailors and fishermen singing with a guitar and drank some of Chianti; in the third – the Greek dancing small traders, applying to the Cyprus mastic, etc…
A park in the vicinity of the old fortress have decided in the early 1840s of the XIX century. Starting this decayed as formed almost spontaneously, garden. That is, as the trees planted were all here, but no care was not observed them. However, overgrown trees and shrubs area called the Castle Garden. It is a wild, he often served as a haven for all sorts of shady characters.
A New History of the park began with the idea, clearly defined and active young mayor GG Marazli who offered to arrange not just a city park, but the park is truly elite. This proposal was preceded by the following story. In 1874 the inhabitants of Odessa in poverty due to crop failure and severe stagnation in trade. The crime situation is such that the worse. And while city council has allocated 10 thousand rubles, that priiskat something to do for the dormant labor. As no qualified work could not offer the city government, it was decided to build a wide road out of town to a place of public festivals and swimming at the cottage “Langeron”. In the spring of that year, 300 diggers set to work: they leveled ramparts, filled ditches, etc. But when the workers approached the powder keg of Lublin Regiment, its commander said that orders to shoot when the distance is reduced to 50 steps, then there will be.. It acts as the statute prescribes. Negotiations, resulting in the cellar has been moved to a safe distance, and all the reconstruction took over the city. Laying tracks continued, was successfully completed, and thus the city without firing a shot captured Hadzibeevsky old castle for public use.
Here then Marazli and he offered to arrange a city park here, and in view of the forthcoming visit to Odessa to ask His Majesty the Emperor on the name of this park Alexandrovsky. a detailed plan was drawn up, and in one of the ramparts built a luxurious royal pavilion (on the site of which was later built the tower), where the monarch and his crew entered the September 7, 1875. The emperor agreed and personally planted a young oak at the main bastion of the former fortress.
The park was the main Alexander Boulevard. In the center of the Alexander Avenue was a neat two-storey building with a beautiful buffet Belvedere turrets on both sides – the vast veranda and the “Music Pavilion”; in the warmer months between the buildings and refreshments under the spreading trees exhibited many tables for visitors. Buffet and the entire boulevard lit by electricity, which was still a rarity even at the end of the XIX century.
In the park, one of the first demonstrations in Odessa, then fashioned “Cinématographe” was organized in the mid-1890s. Immediately arranged most luxurious fireworks. In short, it was primarily a place of rest of the aristocracy and reputable merchants.
Alexander Park – the cradle of numerous sports in Odessa. Almost from its inception farm Langeron here, for example, practiced shooting at targets Odessa hunting enthusiasts. The park is a rich man gave names Lashkov rink on roller skates with asphalt coating and electric light. This happened back in 1856.
Before our time in the park preserved building of the tram station in 1910 (architects – AB and L. Minkus Belkin).
For perfume factory “Rally” was brought from Moscow Pavilion in rococo style, and from Poland delivered the building, which houses plant, supplying electricity exhibition.
A notable place of Alexandrovsky Park and extremely attractive for the young people of that time was the so-called “Black Sea”.
“Once in the Alexander Park, hanging over the pipes and masts port, the city fathers with the pedagogical aim to acquaint the population with the national geography came up to build a small pond in the form of the Black Sea. In strict accordance with the map kalosheobraznuyu dug pit. … If the tank itself has crumbled and lost the slightest semblance of the Black Sea, its regulars firmly retained the nickname “Black Sea”.
Separate page in the history of Alexander Park – Factory, Art and Industry and Agriculture Russia exhibition, which took place on its territory in 1910 – 1911 years under the auspices of the Odessa branch of the Imperial Russian Technical Society and the Imperial Society of Agriculture in South Russia, and attracted hundreds of the most reputable exhibitors from all parts of the empire. Incidentally, the main part of the exhibition was located just in the basin, subsequently adapted by the CHMP Stadium. Suffice it to say that the opening of the exhibition was timed launch of the first in Odessa line electric tram, which runs from the park to the city through the Stroganov Bridge and was made “anonymous Belgian society.” During this exhibition, moving sidewalk was working in the park. Total 1440 ekspanatov was presented at the exhibition.
Park Taras Shevchenko, he began April 30, 1920, according to Executive Committee decisions.
NMP first stadium was built in 1936 and which is associated with the names of many well-known athletes.
At the site of the proposed pond, it was built Greentheater, very popular with the public in 1950-60-rm. With the theater associated with the names of famous artists:. L. Utesov, Lungstrema O., E. Pyekha, Raikin, V. Obodzinskii, Tarapunka and Shtepsel, M. Vodyanogo, etc. Now, unfortunately, the Green theater in ruins and destroyed.
The park is set a number of monuments: the Walk of Fame with burials participants Odessa liberation and monument to the Unknown Sailor,. In different years, it was discovered monument soldiers in Afghanistan and a monument to the dead sailors.
Kobzar monument was erected in 1966.
Modern Park Taras Shevchenko in Photos:
House number 28 – house Mendelevich, 1909 Architect – VI Prohaska (architectural monument)
Awesome original decor: here preserved (in a terrible state) is so rare in today’s Odessa wooden stairs and railings, inlaid parquet floors.
Efim Mendelevich – the son of the owner of the famous “Passage”, “merchant of the 1st guild, elected merchant class; Member of the Commission of the Odessa bread control Exchange; Trustee school students craft established EM Mendelevich “and other.
Lived architect MI Linetskiy in 1910-ies., For projects which built many beautiful buildings in Odessa, including on Marazlievskaya number 2 and number 14. MI Linetskiy – the eldest son of the founder of the national school of literary writer Yitzchak Ioela Linetskiy.
The building, located on the corner, built in the 90s. This house was the home of Gregory Marazli profitable. Many argue that this building is a replica of the building. However, it is not. Apartment house Marazli was demolished in the 70s of the 20th century.
Here Mansion Rogozin. Built in 1892. Architect – FF Steiger. A cozy house with a lodge number 26, the middle. XIX century., Hid in the yard under the shade of trees.
Later – House M. Katznelson, 1892 yard, outbuilding, architect – FF Foreman, at the beginning of the XX century. owners – Alexei and Nikolai Smirnov.
At the beginning of the 1900s. AB doctor lived Grinevetsky – co-owner of the sanatorium «Vita» for internal and nervous diseases (former Shorshteyna.) On the street. Quarantine / angle Hellenic 7 (9); I lived VA Dombrowski – the architect-artist. According to the project of architect samostoyatelno and sooavtorstve, it was to build a lot of houses. One of them is a medical building in Slobodka and is adjacent to suburban cemetery.
And here is the second house of famous representatives hlebotorgovli Mendelevich. House number 24. Mendelevich mansion built in 1909. Architect – VI Prohaska. It Mendelevich owned “Passage” on the corner of Deribasovskaya and Preobrazhenskaya.
House number 22 – apartment house Snitkovsky, beginning of XX century. (architectural monument).
In 1912, the owners were VF Kretilin and MS Verkhovskaya.
They lived in the house at that time, doctors VF Snitkovsky (internal and childhood diseases), NV Grjibovski – “practicing surgeon, obstetrics and gynecological diseases; reception on Mon.,Wend ., Fri. 3 to 5 “and DI Tsiperovich – technical engineer.
The yard residential wing – Built in 2002.
The impressive “palazzo” in the Italian spirit – house number 20. Apartment house AS . Pankeevoy, 1890, architect – LL Vlodek (architectural monument).
Seething life of the city late XIX – early XX century. if not dealt with an aristocratic street. Residents Marazlievskaya were prosperous and successful. Maybe I passions seethed behind the walls of the cozy villas, but we do not knows about them.
The history of “man-wolf” who lived in number 20 (Pankeevyh mansion), 3. Freud’s patient, who the book “From the history of children’s neuroses” devoted just happens to Sergei Pankeev disease. For many years he struggled with his phobia under the direction of Dr. Freud, long-term treatment has yielded results: the brave man survived a suicide sister, his father’s death, revolution, crisis, illness, suicide of his wife and Dr. Freud, the hardships of the war and the subsequent deprivation, wrote a memoir of Dr. Freud and he left this world at the age of 84 years.
In the mansion of a prominent leader of the Odessa – Liberale K. Pankeeva formed a kind of political club … “Over a bottle of wine were in the house on the street Pankeeva Marazlievskaya now Engels, endless discussions on the burning topics … It formed the future leader of the Cadet Party.” Pankeevy, became heroes of many literary works, including S.Luschikg “The Wolf Man”, are the oldest Constantine Odessa. They arrived here as early as 1800, ie, 6 years after the founding of the city.
Many associate of Sigmund Freud with Ukraine and our city. His father, Jakob Freud, was born in Tismenitsya Ivano-Frankivsk region, the mother – Amalia Nathanson, he was also born in Ukraine, in the city of Brody, Lviv region. In Odessa, the mother’s brothers lived. Before marriage Amalia three years she studied at the Odessa High School. When the Viennese psychiatrist was 27 years old, his father decided to start their own business in Odessa. But unofficial payments Jakob Freud seemed exorbitant. He did not pay them. And one night the store burned. Freud Sr. returned to Vienna. Zygmunt Freud was the founder of the theory of psychoanalysis. Now, many have criticized this theory. However, the creator of it would not tolerate any criticism.
Manor house with an expressive composition of the facade in classical style and preserved the fountain bowl at the entrance – the house number 18, the mansion of the merchant 1st guild EY Mendelevich 1880s, architect -. LL Vlodek (architectural monument).
At 1907, from August to November, the mansion was the home residence of the mayor of Odessa VL Novitsky. It was a military man. He retired with the rank of Lieutenant General. Just do not think that he has retired. He sent back the political criminal is still 4 years before he came to Odessa and became mayor. Revolutionary Novitsky injures neck.
In 1900-ies. the owner of the mansion was the PN Komarnicki.
In Soviet time kindergarden was located here. Despite the presence of the children here, see how the façade is preserved.
In apartment house number 16, owned by YS Morton (built in 1886, architect – DE Masire, historical monument), the successful combination of decor, with a clear proportional to build buildings.
The staircase and the panel – is the house number 14a, apartment house YS Morton, in 1905, architect – MI Linetskiy (architectural monument). In the yard remained pool fountain with a touching sculpture – boy hugging fish. It symbolizes whether the unforgettable love guys to fish, or the same joy of a successful catch. Earlier, directly inside the house, located a fountain. You could go down the stairs and enjoy the sound of water.
In the 1945-63 lived Viktor Afanasievich Dobrovolsky
On namesake of the famous astronaut. This person was a scientist in the field of general engineering, doctor of technical sciences, professor, honored worker of science and technology, the organizer of higher technical school in Odessa. He was at the forefront of the industrial institute in Odessa. He was arrested unreasonably. While in prison, he wrote the famous textbook “Machine parts”. VA Dobrovolsky has published more than 160 works, including 10 basic textbooks and manuals, and more than 30 different books. Author of the first aid at the rate of machine parts in the Ukrainian language.
House renovated by “PLASKE” (founded in 1998), the office of which is located here.
JSC “PLASKE” continues the tradition metsenatstva supports many social and cultural projects. The company is the official publisher and patron of the project the World Club of Odessans – literature and local lore anthology “Deribasovskaya – Rishelyevskaya”; lead partner of the project “Sculpture Garden” Literary Museum (creator of exposure); international partner of Odessa National Academic Theater of Opera and Ballet; Odessa National Scientific Library. Gorky; the publisher of “Odessa calendar”, which goes annually to the birthday of Odessa. The last four years beyond the series “History of one street” calendars.
House with fashionable at the time of ancient architectural decoration motifs Gresham, decorated with bas-reliefs on the facade with Masonic motifs – the house number 14b, apartment house Ya Nahum, 1912-1913, architect -. JS Goldenberg (a monument of architecture and history).
In 1912, the owner of the buildings 14a and 14b is listed Mendelevich Maria Anisimovna.
Here is the house number 12. This apartment house Petrokokino, 1896, architect – A. Bernardazzi (architectural monument).
Family history Petrokokino the Greek historical sources can be traced back to the beginning of the XV century. It appears in the list of 37 aristocratic families of Chios island.
Many of Petrokokino in the XIX century cast their lot with other countries. This is primarily due to political reasons – the island, mainly Orthodox population until 1912, was under the yoke of Turkey. This circumstance prompted Petrokokino actively invest their capital outside the borders of the island. In the documents of the State archive of Odessa region Petrokokino the name was first mentioned in the materials of the Odessa Commercial Court for 1813. Also in the documents of the Odessa City Council in 1814 in the list of merchants who have declared assets by 1st guild, appears Stratiy Petrokokino. Consequently, Stratiy Petrokokino (Petro Kokino, Kokino) belonged to the privileged elite of the merchant – after all, under the laws of Russia at that time, the merchant 1st guild had to declare a capital of not less than 50 thousand rubles. It is not known exactly whether he stayed in Russia for good, but his son Michael linked his fate and the business is with Odessa by establishing its own trading house and transferred his case to descendants.
The trading house specialized in the sale of export goods. For example, firms can be traced, which countries the goods arrived in Odessa. Trading house offered cigars, lamps Dietmar from Warsaw, bluing Richter from Lille, Paris firm gelatin Osteocolle Coignet & C and all for the purification of wine, beer and vinegar, ointments for metal cleaning “Putz-Pomade”, the American soap powder Diamand i Putz-Pasta for cleaning the bronze, silver and gold jewelry, Italian matches “Luigi de Medici” from Turin and english “Bryant & May” from London, the Chinese Wax polishes floors, American shoe and other “colonial” products. The two stores was the largest choice of writing, drawing, stationery, ornaments for Christmas trees, Easter eggs, toys and various items for gifts. Also sold steel, enamel and tin-plated tableware, various garden tools, glass, coolers, filters, machines for ice cream, beauty products, etc. The success of the business also provides competent advertising policy. Using a press, placing ads in almanacs, calendars, address, participation in various exhibitions, cooperation with public organizations and companies have been an important part of the business. In 1884, the trading house Petrokokino brothers received an honorary diploma Society of Agriculture of the Southern edge of Russia “For remarkable for the diversity, low cost and practicality of the samples abroad handicrafts”.
In 1896, EM Petrokokino opens a new store of the company, which is the correspondent of “Odessa leaf” newspaper named “Odessa Louvre” for the variety and quality of goods. The choice of location was more than successful – on Greek Street, in the heart of the shopping city, near the port, in the heart of the Greek Odessa. Up until 1919, and advertising signs entirely with Greek names reminiscent of the local flavor:. “Grocery and colonial trade Mavrommatis, etc. The organization of work of a department store EM Petrokokino, first of all, take care about the convenience for its customers – the entire length of the storefront was constructed sidewalk cutout for the crews of the entrance, and in front of the store – iron canopy on the cast-iron columns. All work carried out by workers and materials from the Odessa City Council, but at the expense Petrokokino who contributed to the city’s 1011 cash rubles.
Petrokokino actively participated in charity events. Yevstratii M. Petrokokino for 12 years, from 1892 to the end of his life was a member of board of trustees of the Odessa Commercial School.
After his death in 1904, the head of the firm EM Petrokokino trading house passed to his closest relatives and colleagues – Odessa merchant 1st guild Nicholas hydroxide and foreigner Henry H. von Pogliesu. Activities Trading house “Brothers Petrokokino” in Odessa in 1917 was interrupted by the revolutionary events of the year. The last mention of the company are found in the documents of the Odessa Soviet of Workers’ Deputies in 1917, when the clerks and workers of the company chose his deputy, and city newspapers for advertising in 1919 Petrokokino emigrated to France, Greece, Italy, Great Britain, Austria and other countries, where their businesses and offices also operated successfully.
Thus, we can say that four generations of Odessa merchants Petrokokino for more than 100 years have made a significant contribution to the development of economic infrastructure and cultural life of the city, establishing a trading house, carrying out communication with the European world, investing their money in real estate and is constantly developing the family business.
City estate with a house and outbuilding, openwork lattice – the house number 10, a house and an outbuilding B.C. Kotlyarevskogo end of the XIX century. (architectural monument).
Kotlyarevskaya family engaged in trade in textiles in Odessa since 1833.
When burned Opera House, here placed a wooden theater, and began to organize performances for the venerable public.
Trade in those days was lucrative: the famous Odessa merchants millionaire brothers Ptashnikov, Blizhenski and, of course, made this Kotlyarevski their fortunes. This is a profitable business founded Kotlyarevsky Peter, the former vowel Odessa City Council. In 1870, the business was inherited by one of his sons – Dmitry Petrovich, turning the case into a wholesale company (in 1898 became a partnership). In 1900 Dmitry Petrovich died, and the case was transferred to his brother Paul, who, together with PI Kuchta was one of the main staff of the Firm. The third brother – Ivan Petrovich, a doctor, was formally a partner, but in commercial matters did not take. In addition, Dmitry Petrovich Kotlyarevsky was an honorary sergeant Mariinsky orphanage.
And we go to the next house.
House number 8 – the house F. Gizycko, restructuring in 1883, architect – DV Telezhinsky mansion YV Blumberg, beginning of XX century. (A monument of architecture and history).
In 1912, the architect lived OG Nudelman. In 1905-1928 gg. He lived and worked geobotanist scientist and soil scientist, president of Novorossiysk partnership naturalists GI Tanfil’ev.
Near the next home you will learn how to contact Ukrainian poet of the 20th century to our city.
The house number 6 born artist-emigrant Leonid Görlitz. According to the alphabetical list for 1911 here I lived the Austro-Hungarian Consul Friedrich Ostrovsky visiting family Bagrov’s. The childhood of many citizens of Odessa passed under the sign of wisdom and light writer Alexander Mikhailovich Bagrov. It often came Ukrainian poet Leonid Vysheslavsky, grandson of GG Marazli.
(1914 – 2002)
Soviet and Ukrainian poet, literary critic, translator, and teacher. Born 5 (18 March) 1914 in Nikolaev (now Ukraine) in the family Vysheslavsky Nikolai Dmitrievich (1888-1979), an engineer, and Plato Harlampievna Cleopatra (1892-1939), which had Greek blood.
At eleven years of Leonid Vysheslavsky he wrote his first poem – “Nature” – under the influence of summer stay at the biological station Karadag (Crimea), where he worked for his stepfather. He was a regular visitor to the Kharkov House of Writers’ House named Alan Blakytny “. In this house VAPLITE was founded, which later became the Executed Renaissance. There were often literary performances, including visiting poets Vladimir Mayakovsky, Semyon Kirsanov, IL Selvinsky. Of particular influence in the audience had Mayakovsky. His death Leonid Vysheslavsky experienced as a personal grief (many years later he defended his thesis on the subject of his work). The direct teachers were L. Vysheslavsky Yury Platonov Gavrilovic, Mike Yogansen, M. Bajan, LS Pervomaisky VN Sosiura, Tychina PG, et al.
The first poems published in 1931 in “Red word” Kharkov magazine and in the Moscow magazine “Young Guards”. the first book of “The Spring together” the poet came in 1936. In 1932 he made his first appearance before an audience at a poetry evening strikers, designed in the literature. When the poet studied at the Faculty of Philology, he met his future wife Agnes Balta, with whom he had lived all his life, that is, 60 years. They had a daughter, Irina.
During the war he worked in the army newspaper. He was twice seriously wounded, but returned to the ranks of the military correspondents spring of 1943. As part of the 1st Guards Army LN Vysheslavsky passed roads of Ukraine, Poland, Czechoslovakia.
After demobilization in 1947, LN Vysheslavsky taught theory of literature at the Pedagogical Institute and the Kazan State University named after Taras Shevchenko. In 1948, L. Vysheslavsky became the chief editor of the magazine “Soviet Ukraine”. On its pages for the first time, after a long period of silence in the 40-50-ies were printed poems Voloshin, GN Petnikova, IG Ehrenburg. In 50-ies L. Vysheslavsky traveled with poetic performances.
In the 60s LA Vysheslavsky performed actively, printed books, met with DD Burliuk, Korney Chukovsky. Flying in space Yuri Gagarin took particular joy. He responded to this momentous event next poetry collections, one of which wrote the preface Gagarin. During this period, most famous for its collection of “Star sonnets,” in which the poet has revived the ancient form of the sonnet, filling its contemporary content. In the following decades L. Vysheslavsky led an active life and creative dialogue with outstanding contemporaries. Engaged, except poetry, translations, reviews, performances. Many traveled to the Soviet Union. He died in Kiev in 2002. He was buried at the cemetery Baikove.
Odessa with his connection was never interrupted. This wonderful city was close, very close, and there were many relatives and friends. Grandmother Leonid Vysheslavsky – Evredika Mitrofanovna Tsitsilyano, in the house where he grew up, was the representative branch of the famous family of Odessa Greeks Marazli, from which comes the great mayor of Odessa Gregory Marazli. She comes to his grandniece, and was named in honor of Evredikoy his grandmother, the sister of Gregory Marazli. “Lyusik” The family called the boy. On his senior officers dyadyah Leonid Vysheslavsky recalled in the oral stories as follows: “I had three uncles – officer. One loved cards, the second – the women, and the third – the wine. But all three were delicious wheels on spurs. And when they came to our house and sat down at the table, I immediately under it climbs with the twisted delight these wheels. ” Life in the monastery had a great impact on the future outlook of the poet Leonid Vysheslavsky, who came to the Holy Dormition Monastery on the Great Fountain during the school holidays. He described his experience on how to perform the role of the bell-ringer. In the 50s, the poet Leonid Vysheslavsky came from Kiev to Odessa and writers was extremely cordial and even officially adopted by academician Filatov, who organized a dinner in his honor. During the life of Leonid Vysheslavsky many times came to Odessa. And for his literary works – performances, due to the Odessa literary friendship with the Odessa literary museum, and relax, and work in the House of Writers in the Great Fountain. Odessa – a bright and important page in the creative life of Leonid Vysheslavsky. Here, in the words of the poet, he built his soul. And when at the end of his life he was in the Mediterranean paradise – Cote d’Azur in France, he said that he was very well there because these places are reminiscent of Odessa. The Literary Museum Odessa stored materials on the works of Leonid Vysheslavsky and his books.
And we have to turn our house penultimate tour. It was a man who was able to combine the talent of the architect and the shark pen.
Even side continues a magnificent building at number 4 – apartment house Ozmidov M., 1899, architect – Yu Dimitrenko (architectural monument).
The house belonged to a construction technique department of the Town Council, MP Ozmidov, who led the design and construction work on the paving of streets in Odessa granite, the water supply and stormwater in the 1870-1875.
Ozmidov Mikhail Pavlovich
He was born in 1836 in Chisinau. It is likely that a decisive influence on the choice of profession had his grandfather – Michael S. Ozmidov known architect in the south, who served since 1815 the duties of the architect of Bessarabia. After graduating from high school in 1853 ML Ozmidov enrolled in metropolitan construction school, converted later to the Institute of Civil Engineers. After 7 years of graduate “category 1” was assigned to the Odessa building committee assistant architect. One of the Chiefs was the famous architect Morandi.
Mature specialist has proved MP Ozmidov during the construction of Odessa-Kremenchug Railway (1866-1870). This road is still securely tied to the city and port of the most important agro-industrial area of Ukraine (the first – the Odesa-Parkansky stretch of road – was commissioned back in 1865,). Machinery for construction department of the Town Council, MP Ozmidov led the design and construction work on the cobbled streets of granite, the water supply and stormwater (1870-1875). Not without its participation Odessa was “to get out of the mud.” Completed MP Ozmidov and some work in the field of “surround the design.” Among his homes – a number of buildings in the heart of the city. He was the founder of the Odessa Society of Engineers and Architects. At the meetings of the society made a number of reports on the disposal of urban sewage through the sewage system. He was elected a vowel Odessa City Council.
Journalism was a fad Ozmidov Mikhail Pavlovich, and in 1875, at his own expense, he resumed production in 1869 based newspaper “Novorossiysk Telegraph”. In 1874, MP Ozmidov acquired from KV Kartamysheva first private Odessa periodical publication – the newspaper “Novorossiysk Telegraph”. By this time the newspaper had no subscribers, no employees, a break in its edition was about two years. MP Ozmidov became editor-publisher of the newspaper and renewed her release from January 1875. In the first years after the resumption of publication of the newspaper the number of subscribers reached 5000. Since 1880 dailies (350 issues per year). Due to the attraction of a number of talented writers, published in the newspaper constantly interesting articles on geography, ethnography, statistics, history and economics. The newspaper had a correspondent abroad. The newspaper had its offices in St. Petersburg, Moscow and Kiev, in these host cities subscribe to the newspaper.
Ozmidov was a man who was able to combine the talents of architect and journalist. Ozmidov died in 1897. His wife continued journalistic activities.
And now we will go with you to the last house of our tour, but the first on this street.
Beautiful corner building in Art Nouveau style with mascarons the facade begins to even numbered side of the lane Bariatinskii – house number 2, apartment house M. Lutsk, 1902-1903, architects -. MI Linetskiy, SS Galperson (a monument of architecture and history).
At the beginning of the XX century. it housed “separation Nobility and Peasant banks are placed in the house Marazli located in Baryatinsky lane frontage on Marazlievskuyu”. Peasant Land Bank later moved to the purpose-built for him building on Marazlievskaya 34a and Nobles Bank worked in this house until the Revolution. Once this house prenadlezhat to Gregory Marazli. Brick House – the original. They can see the name of the company “clips and Groisman.”
In the 1910-11 In this house lived the writer Alexander Kuprin.
Odessa was an attractive place for Kuprin. Southern Brightness, vividness residents, interesting characters, the same “thick of life,” which is so fond of the writer: “always looking for life than it smells. Among the longshoremen in the port of Odessa, thieves, magicians and buskers meet people with the most unexpected biographies – dreamers and visionaries with a broad and gentle soul”.
For Kuprina started rather stormy period of Odessa. There ensued his long-term friendship with the artist Peter Nilus, with wrestlers Ivan Zaikin, Ivan Poddubny and well-known athlete and pilot Sergei Utochkin. Perhaps it was in this house wrote the story “Temptation” (1910), “Denochka” (1910), an essay “My Flight”, the story “Garnet Bracelet” (1911) – a work that Kuprin himself considered the best of what he wrote.
According to his daughter, Odessa Kuprin liked more than other cities. Although traveled almost all Russia. The man bright temperament, writer leads a life eventful. In Odessa, Alexander lifted by a balloon, down to the bottom of the Black Sea with divers, lends itself to the magic of the circus – is involved in the fight against the French, in November 1910 is flying on one of the first airplanes with a circus fighter and amateur aviator I. Zaikin. The flight almost ended tragically, the airplane fell. Luckily, all ended well for the writer and for the Russian literature. Once, Kuprin flew with the first aviator of the Russian Empire. They have risen so high that they do not find possible. The famous writer was not three days. All the inhabitants of the city began to look for him, and no one could say what happened to the writer, as the airplane wreckage was never found. Then intervened scoundrel. It was not a man but a dog Kuprina, with the same name. Only she could find the owner. So we decided to include in the search for the animal. Canine scent did not disappoint, and Kuprin was found. And wherever you think they found him? Sashka-Fiddler. About Kuprina life and who is Sasha-Fiddler, you can find out by visiting our literary tour of Odessa. By the way, Paustovsky not believe that Sasha-violinist – a real person. And when Paustovsky was leaving, he saw a funeral procession. That was in ’21. He asked who they were buried? Odessans he was told that Sasha died violinist. Bury the famous prototype came virtually all of Odessa, and the procession could not go unnoticed.
In the 1925-36 biennium. In this house lived a scholar in the field of hydraulics prof. VN Pinega. It is named after the ship.
Opposite the house – the entrance arch to the park and the only building is an odd side restaurant “Red Lobster” ( “Archproject – MDM”).
That ended our tour. I hope I was able to surprise you, or tell you that you’ve never heard. As you have seen, the street was one of the merchants and cultural centers of the city of the middle XIX – early XX centuries. Today, most homes Marazlievskaya – these are ordinary houses. However, this does not prevent the street remain as quiet and pleasant for walking.
PAUL ZELINETSKY ©
Materials brochure published members of
the Literary Museum for “World Club Odessites”
text translation – Vlad Kaspruk