On the territory, where now is located Odessa, at one time visited various nomadic tribes (pechenegy, polovtsy, sarmaty), soldiers of the Golden Horde and the Crimean Khanate, the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and the Ottoman Empire. And every people here has left its mark in the form of stone and bronze tools, coins, ceramic pottery, weapons and other artifacts.
Under current Primorsky Boulevard found traces of ancient Greek colonists of the 7th century BC, and the Mount Zhevakhova found sanctuary in honor of Demeter.
During the Russian-Turkish War of 1787-1792 years of Russian soldiers, according to the Empress Catherine II, cleared the Black Sea coast, between the Dnister and the Dnepr from the Turkish fleet. a priority at that time, was the capture of the Turkish fortress Hadzhibey. September 3, 1789, on the orders of Prince Potemkin, and under the command of General de Ribas and Ataman Holovaty, the Black Sea Cossacks and Russian troops infantry regiments crushed the Turkish fleet with artillery fire and stormed the fortress Hadzhibey….
For north-western coast of the Black Sea began a new era associated with the reign of Empress Catherine II of Russia. Thus, the Russian Cossack saber bayonets and identified the place of the future of Odessa.
The city, known as the Southern Capital, appeared on the map of the Russian Empire after the imperial decree of the highest (May 1794). A January 6, 1795 Catherine II ordered to rename Hadzhibey in Odessa.
The Empress, a German by birth and adopted Orthodoxy, instructed Russian Prince Platon Zubov, Russian General Alexander Suvorov, the Italian (and the Spaniard on his father) Joseph Deribas, Dutchman Frans Devolanu build, literally on top of a rock, a new European city – South Palmyra.
Franz Pavlovich Devalan (Franz de Volan) – Dutch-born and the first Russian military engineer. Since 1795 Franz Devolan specialized in the construction of fortresses, whose purpose – the protection of borders of Russia. At one time, intrigued recently ruined fortress Hadzhibey Franz Devolan created a series of master plans, according to which the future city was supposed to be not only a military harbor, but also a major trading center of the South Russia, focus of social life and the government on the newly conquered land. The plans of the city and harbor received the highest imperial approval and in 1796 under the command of Count Suvorov and the direct supervision of Devolan have been successfully implemented. Since the beginning of the countdown of its history Odessa…
PHENOMENON OF ODESSA
Emerged in the late VXII century and is rapidly developing in the XIX century, Odessa has become one of the richest and most comfortable cities of the Russian Empire. Important role in the development of the city was the fact that at the head of the city stood energetic and talented leaders (Deribas, Richelieu, the Vorontsov, Levashov, Novoselskiy, Kotzebue, Marazli)
Local merchants sacrificed significant amounts in the development of the city. The network of secondary schools, the University of Novorossiysk, music and art schools were preparing a new intelligentsia; multi-ethnic composition of the population contributed to the mutual enrichment of cultures of different nations and formed a kind of culture.
A few years after its founding, the city became the largest exporter of grain and opens a new golden page in its history. In turn, through the port of Odessa in the empire get the necessary goods from Europe, Asia Minor and North Africa. The Duke of Richelieu attracts young city to foreign investors and talent. Thus, already in the first decade of its existence, Odessa becoming an international, cosmopolitan, eclectic city.
Already in the nineteenth century guests impresses innate cosmopolitanism residents. In schools, children learned to peacefully Greek, Jewish, Armenian, Russian, Slovenian, Moldovan, German, French, Italian origin. In Odessa, peacefully coexisted churches of different denominations, theaters were submitted to Russian, Polish, Italian, German.
This Odessa was already a few decades after its founding: lively and fun city with an ethnically variegated, energetic, free-thinking people. Vital resistance, innate optimism and sophisticated humor of Odessa citizens – is the soul of this amazing city….