Foundation of Odessa in 1794 was preceded by the Russian-Turkish wars of the second half of the 18th century as a result of which have been exempted from domination of the Ottoman Empire the earth of Northern Black Sea Coast. “Fight at Kagul”, “Chesmensky fight”, “Battle at Kinburna”. “Storm of Ochakovo” is an incomplete number of the fights which have found reflection in printing graphics of the 18th century.
Thanks to skillful Command of generals P. Rumyantsev, G. Potemkin and A. Suvorov, admirals G. Spiridov and F. Ushakov, the Russian troops and fleet have gained a number of brilliant victories.
The Ukrainian Cossacks participated in release of edge from the Turkish aggressors, to that original documents — certificates serve as the evidence.
Storm of the Turkish strengthening in Hadzhibey in the night of September 14, 1789 was the significant page in the history of edge. This operation has been carried out by the advance party of the major general I. Deribas which was a part of the case headed by the general lieutenant I. Gudovich.
At storm of fortress not only the Russian infantrymen, but also the Black Sea Cossacks under A. Golovaty’s leadership have caused a stir.
The last war of Russia with Turkey in the 18th century has come to the end with the Yassky peace treaty of 1791. The period of settling and economic development of the liberated country has begun. On May 27, 1794 the claiming project and Gadzhibey city map has been published рескрипт Catherine II (the author of the project F. Dewolang). The management of construction of military harbor and merchant pier was assigned to the admiral I. Deribas, under A. Suvorov’s overseeing.
On August 22, 1794 the first piles of port have beenhammed in a festive atmosphere and the first stones of the city were put. This day is also considered birthday of Odessa but Odessa began to be called the city in a year.
Increase in the population was promoted by inflow of multilingual and different races immigrants from other regions of Russia, Ukraine, countries of Western Europe. Among them there were both negotiators, and workmen, and artists, and builders. The development of the city was promoted by the status founded by Alexander I’s Decree of April 16, 1817 porto-free (with fr. — free harbor).
In 1859 the status has been porto-free cancelled as it after all constrained, in a certain measure, development of the local industry.
Over time the capital of Novorossia becomes the largest port which doesn’t have strong contenders at the Black and Azov seas. Shipping those years were carried out by generally sailing courts. In 1828 to Odessa the first trade wheel steamship “Odessa” constructed on the Nikolaev shipyards has been attributed. By the beginning of the 50th years of the 19th century to port 12 steam vessels which were carrying out regular flights on lines Odessa – Constantinople, Odessa — the ports of Danube, Odessa — the ports of the Crimea and Caucasus have been attributed.
Odessa as the port city in the middle of the 19th century became the center of transit and intermediary trade of the countries of Europe, Middle East. Through the capital of Novorossia there passed 37% of all grain export of Russia and about 60% — the country South. Through the Odessa port, besides grain, wool, skin, cattle, ropes were taken out, and a citrus, coffee, oil, drinks were imported. The growing goods turnover demanded continuous conducting construction works in port.
Historical event not only for Odessa, but also for all Ukraine was opening in 1865 of the railroad Odessa — the Balt. Thanks to construction of the railroad. Odessa has been connected to the centers of the industry, trade and commodity agriculture of other regions.
The Kherson, Ekaterinoslavsky and Taurian provinces have achieved impressive success in the socially — economic development, thanks to activity the general – governors of the Novorossiysk region of the first half of the 19th century – Richelieu, Lanzherona, Inzov and Vorontsov.
The skilled and vigorous statesman, faithful to the office debt, the duke Richelieu promoted transformation of Odessa into large trade port and an administrative center of edge much. He also constantly cared for his improvement and has much made for gardening of the city. At the dacha located around the Water beam, Richelieu, being itself a big fan of gardening, I have parted many rare and exotic trees and bushes. But also then she struck contemporaries with abundance and a variety of wood plantings. Because of kroner of the expanded trees structures are almost not visible. By the way, Odessa is obliged to Emmanouil Richelieu who was very loving a white acacia by her wide circulation.
In 1822 Richelieu didn’t become …
Memory of him is immortalized in Odessa by a construction of a fine monument in classical style of work of the St. Petersburg sculptor academician I. Martos. opening of a monument in 1828 was preceded by the solemn bookmark occurring at big confluence of citizens. Taking part in it received the special invitations dated on July 30, 1827.
In 1815 Alexander FedorovichLanzheron (1763 – 1831) has been appointed the governor general of Novorossiysk edge — the count, the general of an infanteriya, came from the French noblemen too. Richelieu, in 1790 has arrived on the Russian service, as well as. Being the chief manager of edge, he continued what has been begun or it is planned at Richelieu — his friend and the compatriot — thanks to what remained in memory of inhabitants of Odessa.
Ivan NikitichInzov (1768-1845) operated Novorossiysk edge short time — from July 17, 1822 to May 7, 1823. He was known and as the Chairman of Trustee committee about foreign settlers of south country of Russia, held this position of 27 years and has got huge love and respect of foreign colonists.
In May, 1823 the governor general of Novorossiysk edge and the deputy reigning in Bessarabia there was Mikhail SemenovichVorontsov (1782-1856) — the count, subsequently the prince (1845), the general from an infanteriya belonged to one of the most ancient noble childbirth. He was a participant of many military campaigns of the 19th century, the hero of Patriotic war of 1812. After a victory over Napoleon three years (1815-1818) I ordered the Russian occupational case in France.
On December 20, 1853 25 years from the date of foundation of Imperial Society of agriculture of the southern Russia were executed. The initiative of the organization of Society proceeded from M. Vorontsov, he was also its permanent President, up to the death. With his direct assistance in the south of Ukraine there was a land development under gardens and vineyards, establishment of such branches of rural production as sheep breeding, tobacco growing and wine growing therefore members of Society also have presented to the prince an anniversary bronze medal and the thanksgiving address. He was issued by the artist Fiodor Gross, popular then in Odessa. He has managed to turn the official document into the real work of lithographic art, having represented attributes of agriculture and landscapes of Novorossiysk edge on address fields.
One of the early lithographed images of Vorontsov Palace is executed in 1837 by Italian Carlo Bossoli in whose destiny the governor general was directly involved. He could consider promising talent of future landscape writer in unknown then young talent.
Among old photos I. Migursky’s work draws attention. On her the moment of opening of a monument to M. Vorontsov at Sobornaya Square is shown on November 8, 1863. The square and streets adjoining to it are filled with the people. So was also during a funeral — in 1856 when Vorontsov’s death was equally mourned by people of different nationalities and religion.
Both Vorontsov, and Inzov, and Lanzheron, and Richelieu were united that these eminent state and military persons directed the work and energy to the benefit of prosperity of Odessa and edge. A. Stroganov, P. Kotzebue, and also many Odessa city’s mayors whose names are engraved on two bronze boards which were once at an entrance to City Council, and now being unique exhibits of the museum were their worthy followers.
For the first hundred years of existence of Odessa the rich architectural heritage has been saved up. And everything has begun with the first furrow as the symbolical act of foundation of the city which is solemnly laid on August 22, 1794. Only after that began to build temples, palaces and shelters, mansions and shops, barracks and benches …
Feature of formation and development of Odessa was that she was created not in chaos of spontaneously arising structures, and strictly according to the plan. Our city is a result of the embodiment in life of an accurate plan of the great master, native of Holland, the engineer – the colonel Franz Pavlovich Devolan (1787-1818). He together with IosifDeribas was an initiator of the choice of Hadzhibey as sites of future main port on the Black Sea. Devolan effectively used district topography, has considered climatic conditions, an economic orientation of future city, and. as a result, expressive planning construction in the composite relation has turned out.
For the fast-growing city new plans and projects were required, and they were created already by other architects, such as E. Ferster, F. Frapoli, A. Digby, K. Potye, F. Boffo. G. Torricelli, F. Gonsiorovsky, A. Bernardazzi, L. Vlodek, etc.
Odessa is famous for the unique, historically developed, architectural complexes. One of them is the ensemble of Primorsky Boulevard which has gained the world recognition turned to port, to the sea. In the center of ensemble the area, adjacent to the boulevard, formed by semi-circular buildings is located (the author of the project — the famous St. Petersburg architect A. Melnikov). The majestic ladder conducting from the boulevard to the sea became especially original, unusual and courageous element of a complex.
At first she was wooden, but in 1837-1841 her steps have laid out from triyestsky sandstone, and almost in hundred years have replaced it with granite.
In the place of crossing of axes of the boulevard and a ladder in 1828 the city’s first monument — to the duke Richelieu, topped all composition has been open. The bronze figure of Duke turned to the sea (sculptor I. Martos) embodies idea of Odessa as port city. From two parties the boulevard is limited by the buildings sustained in style of classicism. It is Vorontsov Palace and the Old exchange.
In spite of the fact that classicism was the leading architectural style of the first half of the 19th century, in Odessa he had had the southern color — with softer plastic details, with the easy balconies and loggias decorated with a stucco molding and openwork pig-iron lattices.
The unique shape to the city is given by the buildings of the period of eclecticism built or in baroque style, or in the spirit of medieval knight’s castles.
The Odessa opera theater is among outstanding constructions of the city.
Odessa not only was under construction, but also equipped with modern conveniences. In 1894 on the celebrations devoted to the 100 anniversary from the date of foundation of the capital of the Novorossiysk region it has been declared that Odessa is the well-planned European city. And considerably it was true.
Start-up of the first tram has been dated for opening of the Art and industrial exhibition in 1910 which was placed in Aleksandrovsk park. Predecessors of the electric tram were: the horse railroad — “horse tram”, and the tram on steam draft — the “parovichok” connecting the city with country areas.
The funicular was sight of Odessa also. He has connected Nikolayevsky Boulevard to Primorskaya Street. It was convenient for the citizens going to estuaries on the Kuyalnitsky branch of the Southwest railroad for people who took heat sea baths in the medical institutions located at the basis of the Boulevard ladder.
In 1873 the water supply problem has been finally solved for the city. By means of the English concessionaires who were attracted by the city authorities Odessa has received Dniester water. By the end of the 19th century the Odessa water supply system was considered as the best on quality of drinking water. Steady water supply promoted gardening of the city. In boulevards and streets, in squares and parks, around mansions and dachas the most various trees and bushes landed.
Age-mates of Odessa are gardens — City and Dyukovsky, presented to the city by its famous inhabitants F. Deribas and I. Stempkovsky. But the oldest park in the city is considered Hadzhibeevsky, known even since the Turkish dominion.
Red tile roofs, the bleached walls of residential and public buildings, spikes, tiers of bell towers, silver of domes of churches, green crowns gave to a city silhouette unique picturesqueness and appeal.
In the history of political an event happening in the Russian Empire over XIX — it is begun the 20th centuries, one of the leading roles was allocated for freedom-loving ‘Southern Palmyra”.
On June 12, 1812 without declaration of war the French troops forced the river Neman and have begun a campaign to Moscow. Lack of the prepared reserves has forced the tsar Alexander I to address the people about convocation of a militia.
Due to epidemic of the plague which has captured the city, Odessa has been freed from formation of a militia. But a great number of volunteers besieged administrative agencies, demanding to accept them on military service. The tsar has signed the manifesto on convocation of a militia on July 6, 1812, and in several days, the landowner Victor Skarzhinskii has submitted to the Leader of the Kherson nobility the application on formation on the means of group of rebels. He has gathered a squadron from peasants in 188 sabers.
At the beginning of the 19th century the capital of Novorossia had reputation of the city of the freethinkers and “unreliable” people who are fond of political debate. In 1814 the Greek emigrants in Odessa have created secret society “Filiki Eteriya” (Greek — “Friendly society”) which has headed preparation of revolt against the Turkish domination in Greece
In the first years of last century the imperial government allowed activity of Masonic lodges. Having arisen in the 18th century, the freemasonry as a religious and ethical current united many progressively and idealistically adjusted people.
The Masonic lodge “Pontus Evksinsky” which has appeared in Odessa in 1817 totaled about 70 members. The city’s mayor of Odessa, the chief of Novorossiysk edge, the count Alexander Fyodorovich Lanzheron was the great master of a box.
On August 1, 1822 activity of Masonic lodges and other any secret societies in Russia has been forbidden by the Royal decree. And it isn’t casual since many future Decembrists were members of Masonic lodges.
Odessa was repeatedly mentioned in affairs of commission of inquiry before which there passed members of Northern and Southern societies. Here were P. Pestel — the organizer and the head of the Southern society of Decembrists; here, visiting mother, there came Podzhio’s brothers — Iosif and Alexander; A. Kornilovich was a pupil of Rishelyevsky lyceum; visited Odessa M. Eagles, S.IM. Muravyyov-Apostola: Century and N. Rayevskiye, M. Lunin, etc.
Thanks to S. Volkonsky relation of the Southern society of Decembrists with Northern, in particular, with one of his heads, K. Ryleyev has been established.
One of nice pages of history of Odessa is connected with the Crimean war (1853-1856) when Russia was opposed by the strong coalition of powers as a part of England, France, Turkey and Sardinia. On April 10, 1854 bombing of the city and port by the ships of the Anglo-French squadron has begun.
On April 30 same year. Overtaken by fog during investigation, one of the best English steam frigates “Tiger” has run aground around the Small fountain.
For the Odessa intellectuals of the second half of the 19th century revolutionism, progressiveness, concern in development of national culture and, as a result of it, emergence in the seventies in the city of a circle of adherents under the name “Odeska Bulk” was peculiar of the XIX century.
Hasn’t avoided Odessa and many-sided revolutionary movement with all his positive and negative manifestations: demonstrations, meetings, strikes, acts of terrorism and strikes.
In 1875 in Odessa “The southern Russian union of workers” led by E. Zaslavsky has been founded. Actively also circles of populists to replace which in the 1890th years Marxist groups have come worked. In 1898 the Odessa social democratic committee was formed. At the beginning of the 20th century from Varna through Odessa to Russia the illegal Marxist newspaper “Iskra” was transported.
“Bloody Sunday” — in St. Petersburg — has caused on January 9, 1905 indignation and strikes in all cities of the country including in Odessa. May leaflets of the Odessa committee of RSDRP were called for a general strike. In the middle of this fight — on June 14 — the Odessa port under a red flag had included a rebellious battleship of the Black Sea fleet “Prince the Potyomkin-Tavrichesky”.
The first volleys World soldiers have sounded in the Odessa port in October, 1914 when war already lasted several months. But Odessa didn’t become the direct arena of military operations, apart from firing of port in autumn days by the ships of the Germanian – Turkish squadron of “Gayret” and “Muavenet”.
Scientists, musicians, actors, artists, writers have played in formation and development of Odessa not a smaller role, than industrialists, builders, bankers and merchants. The first state educational institutions in the city have appeared at the duke Richelieu. It were parish also district schools as the first two steps of a commercial gymnasium.
In 1817 the lyceum subsequently called Rishelyevsky has been founded.
The big sympathy and respect in all progressive layers of the Odessa society was caused by N. Pirogov. He being in 1856-1858 a trustee of the Odessa educational district, I could prove in the reports to St. Petersburg need of reorganization of Rishelyevsky lyceum in university. Though the plan of such reorganization has arisen in the 40th years of the XIX century at the trustee of the educational district D. Knyazhevich, but he was carried out only in 1865 under the Royal decree.
At the university founded by Novorossiysk three faculties have been open: historical and philological, legal and fiziko-matsmatichssky. At different times at university such scientists taught, as well as. Swordsmen. I. Sechenov, K. Dobrolyubsky, F. Uspensky. K. Brun, A. Kowalewski and many others.
Teachers of university were members of many scientific organizations: Novorossiysk society of scientists, Historical and philological society, Bibliographic society, and also Odessa society of history and antiquities.
The Odessa Art school was distinguished from the educational institutions which had a professional focus. It has been created in 1889 on the basis of Drawing school of the Odessa association of encouragement of fine arts and was under authority of the St. Petersburg Academy of Arts.
Teachers and many former graduates of school became members of the Association of the South Russian artists created in 1890 organizing exhibitions and publishing catalogs to which always the press vividly reacted.
The name of the artist KiriakKonstantinovichKostandi is inseparable from the Odessa Drawing school and the more so from Association of the South Russian artists which chairman he was from 1902 to 1921.
Odessa always drew attention not only artists, but also writers, poets. Some of them came back to the city again and again. But “the diploma on immortality of the city”, according to the poet V. Tumansky, was provided by A. Pushkin when has arrived to Odessa in 1823.
Very much A. Kuprin loved Odessa. His works “Garnet Bracelet”, “Gambrinus”, “Duel” were created in our city. Contemporaries considered Alexander Ivanovich Kuprin as the fan of strong impressions. From them he received the most part in Odessa when he was trained in diving business or when flew on the airplane together with Ivan Zaikin.
In Odessa the great Russian poetess Anna Akhmatova (Anna Gorenko) was born; here, developing Pushkin traditions, there was a circle “Green Lamp” which was visited by Eduard Bagritsky and Yury Olesha. The prose of Odessa was enriched by picturesque language, images and types of characters of Isaak Babel.
Classics of the Ukrainian literature also participated in literary life of Odessa. Iván Franco and Lesya Ukrainka’s works were published in the Odessky Vestnik newspaper, magazines “South Life”, “Southern Notes”, “Moment”, the almanac “3 over clouds valleys” and had success in citizens.
But any creative activity — the same writers and artists — would be doomed to a failure without support of patrons philanthropists for whom Odessa was always famous.
Thanks to patronage a specific place in the history of culture of Odessa was held also by theater life. Almost from foundation of the city the wandering theatrical companies began to appear here.
In 1809 on the project of the St. Petersburg architect Thomas de Tomona the first City theater has been constructed, and theater life has begun to boil
Among early considerable performances on the Odessa scene the tours of highly professional drama serf troupe of the prince A. Shakhovsky making great success are celebrated. But soon in Odessa for long time domination of the Italian opera was established. At theater-goers of the 20th — the 30th years of the 19th century on lips names of Catalani, Grizi, Zamboni, Morikoni and Tassistro sounded.
In 1837 in the summer to Odessa with Erekhin’s troupe there has arrived Mikhail Semenovich Shchepkin. He literally shook the audience of each of the played roles is and the Governor of a town in N. Gogol’s “Auditor”, and Garpagon in “Avaricious” J.-B. Molière, and Garrison in “She is mad” A. Melvil.
To history of theatrical Odessa the remarkable page was added by performances of the most visible coryphaeuses of the Ukrainian scene: M. Zankovetskaya, M. Kropivnitsky, I. Saksagansky, M. Staritsky, N. Sadovsky.
Musical life of the city is inseparable from names of such composers as P. Tchaikovsky, A. Rubenstein. I. Rimsky-Korsakov. A. Glazunov. N. Lysenko which came to Odessa; here often their works sounded. In Odessa the prominent Ukrainian composer and the teacher P. Nishchinsky lived and created. The conductor I. Pribik has much made for acquaintance of inhabitants of Odessa to creativity of classics of musical art.
At the beginning of the 20th century the Odessa public expecting with impatience of a new theatrical performance or a concert after” the Lyumjerovsky train” has rushed into Odessa began to show special attention and to cinema. Therefore the materials telling about activity in Odessa of “The queen of cinema” Vera Holodnoy, the film director P. Chardynin and other figures of the arising motion picture art are so interesting.
In chaos of revolution and civil war the Ukrainian people have made an attempt to find national self-determination. But the followed fight of various political groups, activity of the governments replacing each other after 1917 have led to loss of the state independence and inclusion of Ukraine in the USSR. The Odessa local history museum stores a set of documentary evidences of this rough era in the history of Odessa
Documentary evidences of activity of the first Ukrainian government — the Central Rada — are the telegram Manifesto about renunciation of the power of the Nicholas II in March, 1917, the central and local periodicals, “Station wagons”, the state bank notes, photos of the first president of Ukrainy M. Grushevsky Street, and also heads the Central Rada V. Vinnichenko and S. Petliura. These materials not only give an idea of the government which has proclaimed the Ukrainian National Republic but also show one of the most important stages of fight for her independence.
Acts, bank notes, images of the Coat of arms and Flag of the Ukrainian power narrate about the government of the hetman P. Skoropadsky who has come to the power in 1918 as a result of revolution.
The last stage of fight for independence is presented by materials of the period of the Directory which has held on in power till November, 1920. These are manifestos, military insignia, a sample of the passport of the citizen of the Ukrainian National Republic, the diploma the general-horunzhemu to Yu. Tyutyunnik and other participants of “A winter campaign” of 1919.
The Ukrainian sechevy Sagittariuses — the military formation which has played a huge role in fights for free Ukraine are especially allocated. The document on formation of sechevy army, the photo of his heads — E. Konovalets and A. Melnik, propaganda leaflets open little-known pages of creation of armed forces of Ukraine and illustrate heroic biographies of her fighters.
Documents on support of working, soldier’s, sailor’s and country deputies of the Central Rada by the Odessa Council aren’t less interesting; photos of organizers of the Odessa Red guard; certificates and personal belongings of A. Portny — the member of the Odessa working militia, and I. Shereshevsky — the chief of city criminal investigation department. These exhibits which for a long time have become rarities are devoted to the drama events which were taking place in Odessa from March, 1917 to November, 1920.
The deserved glory of Odessa as the cities of actors, artists, writers and musicians has adequately passed from the 19th century in the next century.
The history of the Odessa conservatory created in 1913 has found the reflection in documents, programs and photos. Having undergone a number of transformations, conservatories in 1950 the name of the compatriot of inhabitants of Odessa has been appropriated, to the outstanding singer, the Honoured actress of the USSR A. Nezhdanova.
Graduates of the first highest musical educational institution in Ukraine are known not only in the country, but also abroad. Among them there is E. Gilels, K. Dankevich, E. Chavdar, G. Oleynicheneko, B. Rudenko, N. Ogrenich, A. Boyko, etc.
Not less nice names, such as N. Milstein, N. Fikhtenvolts, S. Furer, E. Gilels, A. Marconi, D. Oystrakh, have in many respects defined a panorama of violin art of the XX century. Though it is only some of the most outstanding pupils of professor Pyotr Solomonovich Stolyarsky (1871-1944) — the organizer and the founder of special music school for exceptional children in Odessa.
In art there are phenomena which open to human imagination a way to the country of special unique images and the imagination. At the beginning of the Soviet platform similar “imaginations” the jazz inseparably linked with creative has called L. Utesov (1895-.1982).
Art of a platform, theater, cinema, music was promptly included into houses of citizens thanks to the invention of television. On May 1, 1956 from the Odessa electro-technical institute of communication the first telecast has taken place.
Much earlier studio of television in Odessa the film studio has appeared. She has been created in 1919 on the basis of the private enterprise nationalized by Gubispolkom. At this studio there began the career the outstanding Ukrainian film director A. Dovzhenko (1894-1956). He has put the first pictures “Vasya Reformer”, “Love Berry”, “Diplomatic Courier’s Bag” which have entered into gold fund of domestic cinematography together with “Zvenigorod” and “Arsenal” here.
Debuted in Odessa also graduates of post-war cinema higher education institutions. Among them directors M. Khutsiev, E. Tashkov, P. Todorovsky, V. Levin, S. Govorukhin, K. Muratova who have shot remarkable movies — “Spring on Zarechnaya Street”, “Thirst”, “The squadron leaves to the west”, “Short meetings”, “Fidelity” and many others.
“Golden Duke” and “Cinemabazaar” — the international film festivals held in Odessa since the end of the 1980th years became bright and remarkable events in cinema life of the city.
Everything that is connected with theater, differs in staginess. Since 1920th years Odessa literally boiled from experimental searches, the art directions and a variety of the arising theaters.
The Odessa academic opera and ballet theater was and remains the largest audio system of the city and one of the leading theaters of the country. For long decades the theater has brought up the whole group of talented masters of opera art.
In October, 1926 opening of the Russian drama theater has taken place.
One of the first Ukrainian theaters the founded «Derzhdrami» theater. Since 1995 he became known as Ukrainian musically — drama theater to them for V. Vasilko.
At those who visit theater of the musical comedy of V. M. Vodyany today, don’t raise doubts that this collective could be born only in Odessa. Actually the theater began the creative biography in Lviv.
The most exacting, not allowing and the slightest falseness, but also the most unruly audience distinguishes the Odessa puppet theater and theater of the young viewer of N. Ostrovsky
At the beginning of August the opponent has broken through the front on the Dniester River, came to the Odessa direction and has surrounded the city. Considering serious danger, on August 5 the Rate of the Supreme command has issued the order: “Not to hand over, defend Odessa to the utmost, involving in business the Black Sea fleet”. On August 8 Odessa has been declared in a state of siege.
The number of the coming troops by 5-6 times surpassed strengths of defenders of Odessa. Without having managed to seize the city from the course, the enemy has developed approach on all front.
In the conditions of a siege of the enterprise of Odessa let out 134 types of military production.
For defense of Odessa work of seamen of merchant marine fleet and dockers had vital value. The sea from the besieged city took out to the back the equipment of plants and factories, there was an evacuation of the population and wounded. The same way Odessa received military replenishment, arms, ammunition.
On September 22, 1941 troops of East sector and a sea landing with assistance of the fighting ships of the Black Sea fleet have struck a crushing blow on the enemy, having bare crushed two divisions and, having rejected the enemy to the North on 5-8 km, liquidated artillery blockade of port and city.
The success of operation has inspired defenders of Odessa. The headquarters of Seaside army have started planning of new counterstroke in the Southern sector, the Council of War of the defensive area — a solution of the problem of preparation for winter. But by the end of September on the Southern site of the Soviet-German front the situation has become aggravated. Odessa has appeared in the deep back, there was a threat of loss of the Crimean peninsula. In this regard the Rate of General headquarters has made the decision on evacuation of the troops protecting Odessa.
There has come the final stage of defense of the city. It was necessary, continuing to constrain the opponent, it is reserved to evacuate the remained equipment of the industrial enterprises, a large number of urban population, army of OOR and a division of Seaside army with arms and equipment.
The combat operation connected with evacuation of forces and means of OOR on art of carrying out and the results remained unsurpassed until the end of the Great Patriotic War.
73 days the besieged Odessa which has become the first city which has destroyed the myth about a danger of the German approach battled. The heroic epic of defense of Odessa is a mass feat of the people, uniform in the aspiration to crush the enemy.
On December 22, 1942 the Decree of Presidium of the Supreme Council of the USSR has founded the medal “For Defense of Odessa” which has awarded all participants of defense, many labor collectives. To fifteen defenders of the city the rank of the Hero of the Soviet Union is given, more than two thousand people are awarded by fighting awards and medals.
In 1965, in commemoration of the 20 anniversary of the Victory, our city which the first in days of the Great Patriotic War has been called the hero town have been handed the Order of Lenin and the medal “Gold Star”.
With leaving of the last defenders of Odessa on the cruiser “Ukraine Is Red” in the city the Germanian-Romanian invaders begin to manage.
Actions of the occupational authorities caused deep indignation and resistance of residents and area. In the first days of occupation in Odessa the underground has developed the work.
The underground diversionary group of the Soviet intelligence agent N. Geft operated on the Odessa ship-repair plant No. 1 since September, 1943. Activity of prospecting diversionary group under V. Molodtsov’s command (an underground nickname Badayev), base of catacomb steel for him near the suburban villages of Usatovo, Nerubayskoye, Kuyalnik is reflected in other not less valuable documentary sources.
In the spring of 1944 the Soviet troops conducted approach on all fronts of Connection of the 3rd Ukrainian front, having successfully forced Dnieper, promptly moved ahead along the Black Sea coast. After liberation of Kherson and an exit to the river the Southern Bug the task to crush enemy troops between the Southern Bug and Dniester and to free Odessa has been set for them.
Working by a unified plan, troops of the front have crushed large forces of the opponent and, having overcome numerous water barriers, in extremely difficult weather conditions on April 9 have approached the city, and by the morning on April 10 Odessa has been freed.
Through a flame and blood, bitterness of defeats and pleasure of a victory to light May morning of the 45th there were the Ukrainian people, having left on fields of battles millions of graves. The book of Memory has immortalized names of inhabitants of Odessa and residents of the area, the dead in days of the Great Patriotic War.
On August 24, 1991 on the political map of the world the new independent state — Ukraine has appeared.
Many-sided activity of various national and cultural associations existing today in the territory of Odessa region is lit by documents, photos and printing editions.
Odessa is connected by friendly and cultural bonds with 28 cities of Europe, Asia. Africa and North America. “Fruits of the earth grow once a year, and friendship fruits — at any time”. These words were told 2500 years ago by the Ancient Greek philosopher mathematician Pythagoras. Symbolical keys open doors to knowledge of culture, history, development of good-neighbourhood of the twin-cities of Odessa. Odessa seaport. And all her sworn brothers stand by the sea or the river too.
On the Black Sea there are two port cities: the Romanian Constanta and Bulgarian Varna.
And on the river of the Tisa, inflow of Danube, the Hungarian twin-city of Szeged which has got popularity products from the ceramics differing in brightness of paints is located.
The Turkish city of Istanbul that on Bosphorus, is to gate and to the Mediterranean Sea. Through these gate it is possible to reach to twin-cities: To Piraeus (Greece), Nicosia (Cyprus), Tripoli (Lebanon), Haifa (Israel), Alexandria (Egypt), Genoa (Italy). Genoa, as well as Odessa, a seaport what the model of the well-known Genoa beacon testifies to. She, as well as Odessa — the hero town with firmness battling against fascism in the years of World War II.
Invariable interest calls custom faience service ‘Seafood” — one of three existing in the world. He has appeared in Odessa thanks to the French sworn brother Marcel.
Colourful albums and commemorative anniversary medals are connected with the Spanish Valencia.
Northern sworn brothers of Odessa — the Finnish Oulu, the Polish Lodz, the English Liverpool are presented by pennants, arts and crafts objects from glass and metal.
Bonds of friendship were stretched from the Black Sea city through Atlantic to other continent — North America. With the large port of the United States of America — Baltimore, the municipal coat of arms, medals, souvenirs, the handle by which the contract on twinning, a symbolical key with the bronze medal made of parts of a frigate of “Konsteleyshn” was signed acquaint. It was the first фрегаг, constructed in 1797. But the most surprising that in the years of World War II it has been again put into operation of the fighting ships and I carried out functions of a reserve leader. Friendly relations with Vancouver — the Canadian sworn brother, have the old story. Officially it has begun since 1972. However, in 1944 municipality of Vancouver, admiring courage of inhabitants of Odessa in days of the Great Patriotic War, I have set to the Odessa City Council the official letter in which it has reported that it will consider it for honor to be made related with Odessa. East sworn brothers of Odessa are the Japanese Yokohama, the Indian Calcutta, the Chinese Qingdao. In the 1990th years Odessa had had new sworn brothers. It is the Moldavian Chisinau, the Russian Moscow, the Armenian Yerevan, the Belarusian Minsk, the Georgian Tbilisi. The friendship and mutual aid of twin-cities help to overcome difficulties on the way of formation of our states for the benefit of all people.
по материалам сайта http://www.history.odessa.ua